Aliases for CCND2 Gene
External Ids for CCND2 Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CCND2 Gene
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6 and functions as a regulatory subunit of the complex, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. This protein has been shown to interact with and be involved in the phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein Rb. Knockout studies of the homologous gene in mouse suggest the essential roles of this gene in ovarian granulosa and germ cell proliferation. High level expression of this gene was observed in ovarian and testicular tumors. Mutations in this gene are associated with megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 3 (MPPH3). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Cyclin D has been shown in many cancer types to be misregulated. Well established for their oncogenic properties, the cyclins and the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK's) they activate have been the focus of major research and development efforts over the past decade. The methods by which the cyclins are misregulated are widely variable, ranging from genomic amplification to changes in promoter methylation. While Cyclin D2 has only been found to be significantly deregulated in glioma, Cyclin D1 in particular seems to be a pan-cancer actor. Cyclin D misregulation has been shown to lead to poorer outcomes in a number of studies, and currently there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies.
GeneCards Summary for CCND2 Gene
CCND2 (Cyclin D2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CCND2 include Megalencephaly-Polymicrogyria-Polydactyly-Hydrocephalus Syndrome 3 and Megalencephaly-Polymicrogyria-Polydactyly-Hydrocephalus Syndrome 1. Among its related pathways are DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent) and IL-2 Signaling Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding. An important paralog of this gene is CCND1.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CCND2 Gene
Regulatory component of the cyclin D2-CDK4 (DC) complex that phosphorylates and inhibits members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulates the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complex and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G(1) phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G(1) phase. Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are major integrators of various mitogenenic and antimitogenic signals. Also substrate for SMAD3, phosphorylating SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and repressing its transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D2/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex (By similarity).