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Aliases for MKRN3 Gene

Aliases for MKRN3 Gene

  • Makorin Ring Finger Protein 3 2 3 5
  • Zinc Finger Protein 127 2 3 4
  • RING-Type E3 Ubiquitin Transferase Makorin-3 3 4
  • RING Finger Protein 63 3 4
  • ZNF127 3 4
  • D15S9 3 4
  • RNF63 3 4
  • Probable E3 Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Makorin-3 3
  • EC 4
  • ZFP127 3
  • CPPB2 3

External Ids for MKRN3 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MKRN3 Gene

  • ZNF127
  • D15S9

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MKRN3 Gene

  • GC15U990051
  • GC15P016700
  • GC15P021228
  • GC15P021358
  • GC15P021361
  • GC15P023810
  • GC15P001945
  • GC15P023874
  • GC15P023950
  • GC15P023982
  • GC15P024015
  • GC15P024041
  • GC15P024069
  • GC15P024095
  • GC15P024122

Summaries for MKRN3 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MKRN3 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING (C3HC4) zinc finger motif and several C3H zinc finger motifs. This gene is intronless and imprinted, with expression only from the paternal allele. Disruption of the imprinting at this locus may contribute to Prader-Willi syndrome. An antisense RNA of unknown function has been found overlapping this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MKRN3 Gene

MKRN3 (Makorin Ring Finger Protein 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MKRN3 include Precocious Puberty, Central, 2 and Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include ligase activity. An important paralog of this gene is MKRN1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MKRN3 Gene

  • E3 ubiquitin ligase catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins.

Additional gene information for MKRN3 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MKRN3 Gene

Genomics for MKRN3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MKRN3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MKRN3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH15J023564 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 +0.5 474 2.3 PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT SIN3A YY1 POLR2B CBX5 E2F8 SP3 NFYC MKRN3 NIPA2 GC15M023573
GH15J023689 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.7 +125.4 125437 2.8 FOXA2 MLX DMAP1 RAD21 ZSCAN9 RARA CREM THAP11 MIXL1 NFKBIZ MAGEL2 MKRN3 NDN PIR60386
GH15J023504 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 11.4 -61.1 -61098 0.2 SCRT2 PRDM10 ZIC2 MKRN3 LOC105370729 PIR37190
GH15J023596 Enhancer 0.3 FANTOM5 1.8 +31.6 31632 0.3 MKRN3 MKRN3-AS1 PIR53131
GH15J023570 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 0.4 +5.4 5362 0.2 SOX13 XRCC5 MKRN3-AS1 GC15M023573 MKRN3 PIR53131
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MKRN3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MKRN3 gene promoter:
  • POU3F2 (N-Oct-5b)
  • POU3F2 (N-Oct-5a)
  • POU3F2
  • C/EBPalpha
  • NF-kappaB1
  • AML1a
  • Pax-6
  • FOXO1a
  • FOXO1
  • HEN1

Genomic Locations for MKRN3 Gene

Genomic Locations for MKRN3 Gene
64,769 bases
Plus strand
62,611 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MKRN3 Gene

Genes around MKRN3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MKRN3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MKRN3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MKRN3 Gene

Proteins for MKRN3 Gene

  • Protein details for MKRN3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Probable E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase makorin-3
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for MKRN3 Gene

    507 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    55645 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Imprinted, expressed from the paternal chromosome only. A deficiency of MKRN3 is not sufficient to cause Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS).

neXtProt entry for MKRN3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MKRN3 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for MKRN3 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for MKRN3
  • Boster Bio Antibodies for MKRN3

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MKRN3 Gene

Domains & Families for MKRN3 Gene

Gene Families for MKRN3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MKRN3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MKRN3: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MKRN3 Gene

Function for MKRN3 Gene

Molecular function for MKRN3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
E3 ubiquitin ligase catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
S-ubiquitinyl-[E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine + [acceptor protein]-L-lysine = [E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme]-L-cysteine + N(6)-ubiquitinyl-[acceptor protein]-L-lysine.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
makorin,ring finger protein,3,associated with a nuclear matrix attachment sequence (MAR),ubiquitously expressed from the paternal allele (maternally imprinted),mediating ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-dependent ubiquitination

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MKRN3 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MKRN3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MKRN3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19549727
GO:0016740 transferase activity IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 22493164
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MKRN3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MKRN3: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MKRN3 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MKRN3 Gene

Localization for MKRN3 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MKRN3 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 4
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
  • Plasma membrane (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MKRN3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:1990904 ribonucleoprotein complex TAS 10196367
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MKRN3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MKRN3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for MKRN3 Gene

SuperPathways for MKRN3 Gene

No Data Available

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q13064-MKRN3_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MKRN3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0016567 protein ubiquitination IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MKRN3: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for MKRN3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MKRN3 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MKRN3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MKRN3 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(17) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(5) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MKRN3 Gene

Makorin ring finger protein 3:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MKRN3 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MKRN3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MKRN3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MKRN3 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MKRN3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x5.2) and Brain - Substantia nigra (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MKRN3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Breast (60.8) and Retina (8.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MKRN3 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MKRN3 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MKRN3 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MKRN3 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MKRN3 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MKRN3 Gene

  • Muscle(4.1)
  • Nervous system(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MKRN3 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • reproductive
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • penis
  • testicle
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vulva
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • hair
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MKRN3: view

Orthologs for MKRN3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MKRN3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MKRN3 34 33
  • 99.61 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MKRN3 34 33
  • 79.33 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MKRN3 33
  • 78.97 (n)
MKRN1 34
  • 50 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mkrn3 33
  • 77.36 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mkrn3 16 34 33
  • 76.67 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MKRN3 34
  • 40 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 32 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MKRN1 34
  • 49 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 48 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mkrn1 34
  • 45 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5347 34 35
  • 42 (a)
CG5334 34 35
  • 40 (a)
Mkrn1 34 35
  • 34 (a)
CG12477 34 35
  • 32 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y55F3AM.6 34
  • 29 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MKRN3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MKRN3 Gene

Gene Tree for MKRN3 (if available)
Gene Tree for MKRN3 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MKRN3: view image

Paralogs for MKRN3 Gene

Paralogs for MKRN3 Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for MKRN3 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MKRN3: view

Variants for MKRN3 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MKRN3 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs371642799 A colorectal cancer sample 23,566,216(+) C/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs755791221 Precocious puberty, central 2 (CPPB2) [MIM:615346] 23,567,042(+) T/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs763195944 pathogenic, Precocious puberty, central, 2 23,566,258(+) CCCCCCC/CCCCCCCC coding_sequence_variant, frameshift
rs879255238 pathogenic, Precocious puberty, central, 2 23,566,418(+) CC/C coding_sequence_variant, frameshift
rs879255239 pathogenic, Precocious puberty, central, 2 23,566,954(+) A/AA coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MKRN3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3635842 CNV gain 21293372
esv3892632 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1042668 CNV loss 25217958
nsv568341 CNV gain 21841781
nsv832931 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for MKRN3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.86; 18.01% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MKRN3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MKRN3 Gene

Disorders for MKRN3 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(6) MalaCards diseases for MKRN3 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MKRN3 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Precocious puberty, central 2 (CPPB2) [MIM:615346]: A condition defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of puberty in the population. Central precocious puberty results from premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:23738509, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24438377, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24628548, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25011910, ECO:0000269 PubMed:25316453}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for MKRN3

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MKRN3: view

No data available for Genatlas for MKRN3 Gene

Publications for MKRN3 Gene

  1. A novel imprinted gene, encoding a RING zinc-finger protein, and overlapping antisense transcript in the Prader-Willi syndrome critical region. (PMID: 10196367) Jong MT … Nicholls RD (Human molecular genetics 1999) 2 3 4 58
  2. Central precocious puberty in a girl and early puberty in her brother caused by a novel mutation in the MKRN3 gene. (PMID: 24438377) Settas N … Voutetakis A (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2014) 3 4 58
  3. Central precocious puberty that appears to be sporadic caused by paternally inherited mutations in the imprinted gene makorin ring finger 3. (PMID: 24628548) Macedo DB … Latronico AC (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2014) 3 4 58
  4. MKRN3 mutations in familial central precocious puberty. (PMID: 25011910) Schreiner F … Woelfle J (Hormone research in paediatrics 2014) 3 4 58
  5. A novel MKRN3 missense mutation causing familial precocious puberty. (PMID: 25316453) de Vries L … Phillip M (Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2014) 3 4 58

Products for MKRN3 Gene

Sources for MKRN3 Gene

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