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Aliases for TRH Gene

Aliases for TRH Gene

  • Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone 2 3 3 5
  • Prothyroliberin 2 3 4
  • Pro-TRH 3 4
  • Pro-Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone 3
  • Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone 2
  • Thyrotropin-Releasing Factor 3
  • TSH-Releasing Factor 3
  • Protirelin 3
  • TRF 3

External Ids for TRH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TRH Gene

  • GC03M126462
  • GC03P130327
  • GC03P130975
  • GC03P131014
  • GC03P131176
  • GC03P129693
  • GC03P127076

Summaries for TRH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TRH Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone family. Cleavage of the encoded proprotein releases mature thyrotropin-releasing hormone, which is a tripeptide hypothalamic regulatory hormone. The human proprotein contains six thyrotropin-releasing hormone tripeptides. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is involved in the regulation and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone, as well as prolactin. Deficiency of this hormone has been associated with hypothalamic hypothyroidism. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TRH Gene

TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TRH include Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency and Endogenous Depression. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include neuropeptide hormone activity and thyrotropin-releasing hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRH Gene

  • Functions as a regulator of the biosynthesis of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland and as a neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator in the central and peripheral nervous systems. May promote hair shaft elongation, prolonge the hair cycle growth phase (anagen) and antagonized its termination by TGFB2. May also increase proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes.

Additional gene information for TRH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TRH Gene

Genomics for TRH Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TRH Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TRH Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J129974 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 +0.4 397 0.1 SUZ12 EZH2 TRH GC03P129977 GC03P129910
GH03J129975 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.7 -0.1 -60 0.1 EZH2 TRH COL6A4P2 LINC02021 FAM86HP ENSG00000250643 GC03P129910
GH03J129953 Enhancer 0.3 ENCODE 13 -20.6 -20606 0.2 ZNF366 TRH PLXND1 ENSG00000250643 TMCC1-AS1 GC03P129910
GH03J129971 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 ENCODE 0.7 -2.7 -2662 0.4 NCOA3 SOX13 CLOCK ESRRA FOXA2 NEUROD1 RARA CTBP1 GATA3 NR2F6 H1FOO TRH ENSG00000250643 GC03P129910
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TRH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TRH gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • NRSF form 2
  • NRSF form 1
  • FOXF2
  • GATA-1
  • Pax-2a
  • Pax-2
  • FOXJ2
  • FOXJ2 (long isoform)
  • Pax-4a

Genomic Locations for TRH Gene

Genomic Locations for TRH Gene
3,634 bases
Plus strand
3,668 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TRH Gene

Genes around TRH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TRH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TRH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TRH Gene

Proteins for TRH Gene

  • Protein details for TRH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R8R1
    • Q2TB83

    Protein attributes for TRH Gene

    242 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    27404 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for TRH Gene

Post-translational modifications for TRH Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TRH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TRH Gene

Domains & Families for TRH Gene

Gene Families for TRH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for TRH Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TRH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the TRH family.
  • Belongs to the TRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TRH: view

Function for TRH Gene

Molecular function for TRH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Functions as a regulator of the biosynthesis of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland and as a neurotransmitter/ neuromodulator in the central and peripheral nervous systems. May promote hair shaft elongation, prolonge the hair cycle growth phase (anagen) and antagonized its termination by TGFB2. May also increase proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thyrotropin releasing hormone,precursor with 6 TRH repetitive sequences

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0008437 thyrotropin-releasing hormone activity IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TRH: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TRH Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TRH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TRH:
  • Trh Trh<tm1Mmt>

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TRH

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TRH Gene

Localization for TRH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRH Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TRH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 4
nucleus 4
cytosol 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA,IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA,IBA --
GO:0030141 secretory granule IBA,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRH: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TRH Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TRH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TRH: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TRH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0001692 histamine metabolic process IEA,IBA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 2126343
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling TAS 2126343
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRH: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TRH Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TRH Gene

(52) Drugs for TRH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
TRH Precursor Peptide Pharma 0

(19) Additional Compounds for TRH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TRH: view

Transcripts for TRH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TRH Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(29) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TRH Gene

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TRH

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TRH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TRH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TRH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TRH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Hypothalamus (x29.1) and Cervix - Endocervix (x5.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TRH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Vitreous humor (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TRH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TRH Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TRH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TRH Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TRH Gene:

Tissue specificity: Hypothalamus. Expressed in the hair follicle epithelium (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TRH Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Lung(4.1)
  • Thyroid gland(3.3)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Adrenal gland(2.3)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TRH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • hypothalamus
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • vocal cord
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • pelvis
  • rectum
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TRH: view

Orthologs for TRH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TRH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TRH 34 33
  • 97.64 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TRH 34 33
  • 81.17 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TRH 34 33
  • 79.58 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Trh 33
  • 66.96 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trh 16 34 33
  • 66.81 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TRH 34
  • 55 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TRH 34
  • 44 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TRH 34
  • 32 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TRH 34
  • 37 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii trh 34
  • 39 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TRH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TRH Gene

Gene Tree for TRH (if available)
Gene Tree for TRH (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TRH: view image

Paralogs for TRH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TRH Gene

Variants for TRH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TRH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs61740106 likely-benign, not provided 129,976,735(+) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs5658 benign, not specified 129,975,838(+) C/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs5660 benign, not specified 129,976,871(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs5662 benign, not specified 129,977,111(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs5663 benign, not specified 129,977,198(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TRH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4860n100 CNV gain 25217958
esv2759177 CNV gain+loss 17122850
nsv1012843 CNV gain 25217958
nsv460853 CNV loss 19166990
nsv591679 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for TRH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 73.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.08; 80.43% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TRH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRH Gene

Disorders for TRH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(30) MalaCards diseases for TRH Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
thyrotropin-releasing hormone deficiency
  • trh deficiency
endogenous depression
  • unipolar depression
  • hprl
  • thyroid deficiency
empty sella syndrome
  • empty sella turcica
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TRH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for TRH Gene

thyrotropin releasing hormone deficiency

Additional Disease Information for TRH

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TRH: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRH Gene

Publications for TRH Gene

  1. Cloning and structure of human genomic DNA and hypothalamic cDNA encoding human prepro thyrotropin-releasing hormone. (PMID: 2126343) Yamada M … Wilber JF (Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 1990) 2 3 4 58
  2. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control. (PMID: 19825978) Gáspár E … Paus R (FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2010) 3 4 58
  3. Association study of 182 candidate genes in anorexia nervosa. (PMID: 20468064) Pinheiro AP … Woodside DB (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Comprehensive copy number variant (CNV) analysis of neuronal pathways genes in psychiatric disorders identifies rare variants within patients. (PMID: 20398908) Saus E … Estivill X (Journal of psychiatric research 2010) 3 44 58

Products for TRH Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TRH

Sources for TRH Gene

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