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Aliases for TPBG Gene

Aliases for TPBG Gene

  • Trophoblast Glycoprotein 2 3 5
  • 5T4 Oncofetal Trophoblast Glycoprotein 3 4
  • Wnt-Activated Inhibitory Factor 1 3 4
  • 5T4 Oncotrophoblast Glycoprotein 3 4
  • 5T4 Oncofetal Antigen 3 4
  • WAIF1 3 4
  • M6P1 3 4
  • 5T4 3 4
  • 5T4AG 3

External Ids for TPBG Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TPBG Gene

  • GC06P083027
  • GC06P083069
  • GC06P083130
  • GC06P080300
  • GC06P083072

Summaries for TPBG Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TPBG Gene

  • This gene encodes a leucine-rich transmembrane glycoprotein that may be involved in cell adhesion. The encoded protein is an oncofetal antigen that is specific to trophoblast cells. In adults this protein is highly expressed in many tumor cells and is associated with poor clinical outcome in numerous cancers. Alternate splicing in the 5' UTR results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TPBG Gene

TPBG (Trophoblast Glycoprotein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TPBG include Skin Tag and Invasive Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma. An important paralog of this gene is TPBGL.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPBG Gene

  • May function as an inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by indirectly interacting with LRP6 and blocking Wnt3a-dependent LRP6 internalization.

Gene Wiki entry for TPBG Gene

Additional gene information for TPBG Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TPBG Gene

Genomics for TPBG Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TPBG Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TPBG Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06I082362 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 576.1 +1.3 1348 4.4 CLOCK SIN3A GLI4 ZNF2 ZNF48 GLIS2 ZNF143 KLF7 FOS ATF7 TPBG LOC105377875 GC06P082368
GH06I082396 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 17.9 +34.9 34921 3.5 INSM2 FEZF1 ZNF2 ZBTB40 ZNF213 ZNF366 ZNF391 FOS RUNX3 KLF13 DOPEY1 TPBG UBE3D GC06M082379 GC06M082439
GH06I082245 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 6.9 -115.9 -115868 3.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B IBTK RNU6-130P TPBG PGM3 GC06P082230
GH06I082259 Enhancer 1 ENCODE 14.3 -101.5 -101508 3.6 PKNOX1 ARNT FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF213 ZNF302 FOS KLF13 SP3 REST GC06P082262 DOPEY1 UBE3D IBTK TPBG PGM3
GH06I082330 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 20.2 -31.7 -31664 1.1 CTCF JUN FEZF1 RAD21 ZSCAN5C SMC3 RCOR1 FOS DEK SMARCE1 TPBG GC06M082273
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TPBG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TPBG gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TPBG Gene

Genomic Locations for TPBG Gene
7,623 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TPBG Gene

Genes around TPBG on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TPBG Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TPBG Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TPBG Gene

Proteins for TPBG Gene

  • Protein details for TPBG Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Trophoblast glycoprotein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K555

    Protein attributes for TPBG Gene

    420 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    46032 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Antigen 5T4 is overexpressed by a wide spectrum of cancers, including colorectal, ovarian and gastric, but with a limited normal tissue expression. Could be used for tumor immunotherapy.
    • Reduction of TPBG levels by siRNA significantly enhanced the beta-catenin/TCF transcription-based reporter pBAR activation in response to Wnt stimulation.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TPBG Gene

neXtProt entry for TPBG Gene

Post-translational modifications for TPBG Gene

Other Protein References for TPBG Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TPBG Gene

Domains & Families for TPBG Gene

Gene Families for TPBG Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TPBG Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The C-terminus of LRR N-terminal cap (LRRNT) and LRR 1 are essential for the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway.
  • The C-terminus of LRR N-terminal cap (LRRNT) and LRR 1 are essential for the inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TPBG: view

Function for TPBG Gene

Molecular function for TPBG Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
trophoblast glycoprotein
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May function as an inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by indirectly interacting with LRP6 and blocking Wnt3a-dependent LRP6 internalization.
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TPBG: view

Animal Models for TPBG Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TPBG:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TPBG

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TPBG Gene

Localization for TPBG Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPBG Gene

Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TPBG gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
endoplasmic reticulum 3
extracellular 2
mitochondrion 2
nucleus 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TPBG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 10366710
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA,HDA 19581412
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPBG: view

Pathways & Interactions for TPBG Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TPBG Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007155 cell adhesion NAS 10366710
GO:0051965 positive regulation of synapse assembly IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TPBG: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TPBG Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TPBG Gene

(1) Additional Compounds for TPBG Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TPBG: view

Transcripts for TPBG Gene

Unigene Clusters for TPBG Gene

Trophoblast glycoprotein:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TPBG Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c · 5d
SP1: - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: -

Relevant External Links for TPBG Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TPBG Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TPBG Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TPBG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Muscularis (x6.5) and Esophagus - Gastroesophageal Junction (x4.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TPBG Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (49.6) and Bone (8.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TPBG Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TPBG Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TPBG Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TPBG Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed by all types of trophoblasts as early as 9 weeks of development. Specific for trophoblastic cells except for amniotic epithelium. In adult tissues, the expression is limited to a few epithelial cell types but is found on a variety of carcinoma.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TPBG Gene

  • Liver(4.1)
  • Muscle(4.1)
  • Nervous system(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TPBG: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TPBG Gene

Orthologs for TPBG Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for TPBG Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TPBG 33 34
  • 99.68 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TPBG 34
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TPBG 33 34
  • 87.22 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TPBG 33 34
  • 87.14 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tpbg 33 16 34
  • 82.86 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tpbg 33
  • 82.78 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TPBG 34
  • 66 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TPBG 33 34
  • 69.14 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TPBG 34
  • 94 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tpbg 33
  • 55.87 (n)
Str.220 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.5548 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tpbgb 33 34
  • 52.7 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TPBG was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TPBG Gene

Gene Tree for TPBG (if available)
Gene Tree for TPBG (if available)

Paralogs for TPBG Gene

Paralogs for TPBG Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TPBG: view

Variants for TPBG Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TPBG Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000089480 -- 82,367,510(+) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000101329 -- 82,361,739(+) T/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000293453 -- 82,371,238(+) A/G downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000586525 -- 82,370,050(+) T/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000617527 -- 82,369,719(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TPBG Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv7937 CNV loss 18304495

Variation tolerance for TPBG Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.94; 36.06% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TPBG Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TPBG Gene

Disorders for TPBG Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(4) MalaCards diseases for TPBG Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
skin tag
  • cutaneous tag
invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma
  • invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma
renal cell carcinoma, nonpapillary
  • rcc
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TPBG in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TPBG

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TPBG: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TPBG Gene

Publications for TPBG Gene

  1. Isolation of a cDNA encoding 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein. An antigen associated with metastasis contains leucine-rich repeats. (PMID: 8132670) Myers KA … Stern PL (The Journal of biological chemistry 1994) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing oncofetal antigen (tumor-associated antigen) 5T4 induces active therapy of established tumors. (PMID: 12481437) Mulryan K … Carroll MW (Molecular cancer therapeutics 2002) 3 4 22 58
  3. Structural insights into the inhibition of Wnt signaling by cancer antigen 5T4/Wnt-activated inhibitory factor 1. (PMID: 24582434) Zhao Y … Jones EY (Structure (London, England : 1993) 2014) 3 4 58
  4. Identification and functional validation of MHC class I epitopes in the tumor-associated antigen 5T4. (PMID: 18567615) Shingler WH … Harrop R (International immunology 2008) 3 22 58
  5. An MVA-based vaccine targeting the oncofetal antigen 5T4 in patients undergoing surgical resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases. (PMID: 18833005) Elkord E … Stern PL (Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997) 2008) 3 22 58

Products for TPBG Gene

Sources for TPBG Gene

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