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Aliases for TOP2B Gene

Aliases for TOP2B Gene

  • DNA Topoisomerase II Beta 2 3 5
  • Topoisomerase (DNA) II Beta 180kDa 2 3
  • DNA Topoisomerase II, Beta Isozyme 3 4
  • DNA Topoisomerase II, 180 KD 3
  • DNA Topoisomerase 2-Beta 3
  • U937 Associated Antigen 3
  • Topoisomerase II Beta 3
  • Topoisomerase IIb 3
  • Antigen MLAA-44 3
  • Topo II Beta 3
  • EC 4
  • Top2beta 3
  • TOPIIB 3

External Ids for TOP2B Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TOP2B Gene

  • GC03M025346
  • GC03M025489
  • GC03M025614
  • GC03M025584
  • GC03M025639

Summaries for TOP2B Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TOP2B Gene

  • This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, beta, is localized to chromosome 3 and the alpha form is localized to chromosome 17. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]

GeneCards Summary for TOP2B Gene

TOP2B (DNA Topoisomerase II Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TOP2B include Non-Functioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumor and Autism. Among its related pathways are SUMOylation and Cell cycle_Chromosome condensation in prometaphase. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and enzyme binding. An important paralog of this gene is TOP2A.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

  • Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.

Tocris Summary for TOP2B Gene

  • Topoisomerases are ubiquitously expressed enzymes that overcome topological problems in genomic DNA, which can result from DNA replication, transcription and repair. Common problems such as knots and tangles are often resolved by topoisomerases.

Gene Wiki entry for TOP2B Gene

Additional gene information for TOP2B Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TOP2B Gene

Genomics for TOP2B Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TOP2B Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TOP2B Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH03J025662 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 669.2 +0.5 475 4.6 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 ZNF143 TOP2B MIR4442 NGLY1 GC03M025633
GH03J025603 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.3 +60.7 60748 1.7 HDAC1 ATF1 FOXA2 PKNOX1 ARNT RAD21 YY1 CHAMP1 ZNF766 EGR1 TOP2B ENSG00000275227 ENSG00000272166
GH03J025594 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.3 +70.7 70706 0.4 CTCF ZNF654 ZNF740 TRIM22 REST RAD21 RFX5 POLR2A VEZF1 HMBOX1 TOP2B ENSG00000275227 ENSG00000272166 RARB
GH03J025588 Enhancer 0.6 dbSUPER 7 +75.7 75689 1.5 ZNF189 RAD21 NR2F2 MEF2D JUND MYNN ZFP36 EHMT2 FOS FOSL2 TOP2B ENSG00000275227 ENSG00000272166 RARB
GH03J025046 Enhancer 0.3 ENCODE 12.9 +619.7 619687 0.4 ZNF585B TOP2B GC03P025048 RNA5SP125 ENSG00000237838
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TOP2B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for TOP2B Gene

Genomic Locations for TOP2B Gene
67,003 bases
Minus strand
66,924 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TOP2B Gene

Genes around TOP2B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TOP2B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TOP2B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TOP2B Gene

Proteins for TOP2B Gene

  • Protein details for TOP2B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    DNA topoisomerase 2-beta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13600
    • Q9UMG8
    • Q9UQP8

    Protein attributes for TOP2B Gene

    1626 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    183267 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420; Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035; Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:21778401). Interacts with KIAA1210 (By similarity).
    • Eukaryotic topoisomerase I and II can relax both negative and positive supercoils, whereas prokaryotic enzymes relax only negative supercoils.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TOP2B Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TOP2B Gene


neXtProt entry for TOP2B Gene

Post-translational modifications for TOP2B Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=10081008, isoforms=2744, isoforms=2712, isoforms=2643, posLast=635635, isoforms=2605, isoforms=2550, posLast=541541, isoforms=2412, isoforms=2407, posLast=342342, isoforms=2254, posLast=212212, and posLast=144144
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TOP2B Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TOP2B Gene

Domains & Families for TOP2B Gene

Gene Families for TOP2B Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the type II topoisomerase family.
  • Belongs to the type II topoisomerase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TOP2B: view

Function for TOP2B Gene

Molecular function for TOP2B Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP-dependent breakage, passage and rejoining of double-stranded DNA.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
DNA topoisomerase II beta (180kDa),ubiquitous,ATPase component of the topoisomerase II,involved in the breakage and rejoining of double strand of DNA,relaxing both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA,target of several drugs,widely used in the treatment of human cancers

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TOP2B Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IEA --
GO:0003682 chromatin binding IDA 9049244
GO:0003916 DNA topoisomerase activity IEA --
GO:0003918 DNA topoisomerase type II (ATP-hydrolyzing) activity IDA 10684600
GO:0005080 protein kinase C binding IPI 16611985
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TOP2B: view

Animal Models for TOP2B Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TOP2B:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TOP2B

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TOP2B Gene

Localization for TOP2B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus, nucleolus.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TOP2B gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000792 colocalizes_with heterochromatin IDA 9049244
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA,IEA 9049244
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005730 NOT nucleolus IDA 9049244
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view

Pathways & Interactions for TOP2B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TOP2B: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TOP2B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000712 resolution of meiotic recombination intermediates IBA --
GO:0000819 sister chromatid segregation IBA --
GO:0001764 neuron migration IEA --
GO:0006259 DNA metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006265 DNA topological change IDA 10684600
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TOP2B: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TOP2B Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TOP2B Gene

(45) Drugs for TOP2B Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Daunorubicin Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor 291
Etoposide Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor Topo II inhibitor, Topoisomerase 2 Inhibitors 1302
Dexrazoxane Approved, Withdrawn Pharma Target 43
Amsacrine Approved, Investigational Pharma Topoisomerase 2 inhibitor 8
Doxorubicin Approved, Investigational Pharma Topo II inhibitor,immunosuppresive antineoplastic antibiotic 1828

(5) Additional Compounds for TOP2B Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Dexrazoxane hydrochloride
Doxorubicin hydrochloride
Mitoxantrone dihydrochloride

(4) Tocris Compounds for TOP2B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Dexrazoxane hydrochloride Topoisomerase II inhibitor 1263283-43-7
Doxorubicin hydrochloride Antitumor antibiotic agent. Inhibits DNA topoisomerase II 25316-40-9
Ellipticine Antitumor and intercalating agent; inhibits DNA topoisomerase II 519-23-3
Mitoxantrone dihydrochloride Topoisomerase II inhibitor; immunosuppressive and antineoplastic agent 70476-82-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TOP2B: view

Transcripts for TOP2B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TOP2B Gene

Unigene Clusters for TOP2B Gene

Topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TOP2B

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TOP2B Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TOP2B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TOP2B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TOP2B Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TOP2B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (14.1), Fetal Brain (11.5), and Retina (7.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for TOP2B Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TOP2B Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TOP2B Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TOP2B Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TOP2B Gene

  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Blood(4.3)
  • Intestine(3.4)
  • Heart(3)
  • Lung(2.9)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Muscle(2.2)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Eye(2)
  • Spleen(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TOP2B: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TOP2B Gene

Orthologs for TOP2B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TOP2B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TOP2B 34 33
  • 99.77 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TOP2B 34 33
  • 95.28 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TOP2B 34
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TOP2B 34 33
  • 92.53 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Top2b 16 34 33
  • 92.02 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TOP2B 34
  • 92 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Top2b 33
  • 91.1 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TOP2B 34 33
  • 83.44 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TOP2B 34
  • 87 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia top2b 33
  • 76.99 (n)
Str.19992 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii top2b 34 33
  • 70.3 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Top2 34 35
  • 55 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F32A11.4 35
  • 59 (a)
ZK1127.7 35
  • 54 (a)
cin-4 34
  • 51 (a)
F32A11.5 35
  • 51 (a)
top-2 34
  • 50 (a)
Y46H3C.4 34 35
  • 43 (a)
R05D3.12 34
  • 41 (a)
R05D3.1 35
  • 40 (a)
F31E8.6 35
  • 38 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0C13838g 33
  • 56.47 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TOP2 36 34 33
  • 55.85 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AER410W 33
  • 55.05 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons TOPII 33
  • 58.07 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os02g0699700 33
  • 59.8 (n)
Os.34202 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 63 (a)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes top2 33
  • 56.15 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06338 33
  • 51.88 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TOP2B was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TOP2B Gene

Gene Tree for TOP2B (if available)
Gene Tree for TOP2B (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TOP2B: view image

Paralogs for TOP2B Gene

Paralogs for TOP2B Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TOP2B Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • H7BZ82_HUMAN
  • L8E8K5_HUMAN
  • Q71UH4_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TOP2B: view

Variants for TOP2B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TOP2B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 03 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs886039770 likely-pathogenic, Autism spectrum disorders 25,645,353(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000116519 -- 25,631,089(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1000123392 -- 25,661,813(-) G/C intron_variant
rs1000145774 -- 25,665,923(-) G/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000172258 -- 25,616,252(-) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TOP2B Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4707n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv2725054 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3307199 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3402240 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3561627 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3893676 CNV loss 25118596
nsv1073212 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1141805 CNV insertion 24896259
nsv507089 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv955576 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TOP2B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.63% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.43; 71.35% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TOP2B Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TOP2B Gene

Disorders for TOP2B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for TOP2B Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
  • non functioning pancreatic endocrine tumor
  • autistic disorder
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TOP2B in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Note=A defect in TOP2B is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:28343847}.

Additional Disease Information for TOP2B

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TOP2B: view

No data available for Genatlas for TOP2B Gene

Publications for TOP2B Gene

  1. Isolation of cDNA clones encoding the beta isozyme of human DNA topoisomerase II and localisation of the gene to chromosome 3p24. (PMID: 1333583) Jenkins JR … Hickson ID (Nucleic acids research 1992) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Mutagenesis of E477 or K505 in the B' domain of human topoisomerase II beta increases the requirement for magnesium ions during strand passage. (PMID: 10684600) West KL … Austin CA (Biochemistry 2000) 3 4 22 58
  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta genes: evidence for isoform evolution through gene duplication. (PMID: 10095062) Sng JH … Fisher LM (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999) 3 4 22 58
  4. Rubella vaccine-induced cellular immunity: evidence of associations with polymorphisms in the Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors, and innate immune response genes. (PMID: 19902255) Ovsyannikova IG … Poland GA (Human genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58

Products for TOP2B Gene

Sources for TOP2B Gene

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