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Aliases for LEFTY2 Gene

Aliases for LEFTY2 Gene

  • Left-Right Determination Factor 2 2 3 3 5
  • Endometrial Bleeding-Associated Factor 3 4
  • Left-Right Determination Factor A 3 4
  • Transforming Growth Factor Beta-4 3 4
  • Protein Lefty-2 3 4
  • Protein Lefty-A 3 4
  • TGF-Beta-4 3 4
  • LEFTYA 3 4
  • TGFB4 3 4
  • LEFTA 3 4
  • EBAF 3 4
  • Endometrial Bleeding Associated Factor (Left-Right Determination, Factor A; Transforming Growth Factor Beta Superfamily) 2
  • Transforming Growth Factor, Beta-4 (Endometrial Bleeding-Associated Factor; LEFTY A) 2

External Ids for LEFTY2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for LEFTY2 Gene

  • TGFB4
  • EBAF

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LEFTY2 Gene

  • GC01M222432
  • GC01M224190
  • GC01M226126
  • GC01M196642

Summaries for LEFTY2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LEFTY2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein, which plays a role in left-right asymmetry determination of organ systems during development. The protein may also play a role in endometrial bleeding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with left-right axis malformations, particularly in the heart and lungs. Some types of infertility have been associated with dysregulated expression of this gene in the endometrium. This gene is closely linked to both a related family member and a related pseudogene. This gene encodes multiple isoforms that may undergo similar proteolytic processing. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]

GeneCards Summary for LEFTY2 Gene

LEFTY2 (Left-Right Determination Factor 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LEFTY2 include Complete Atrioventricular Canal and Apical Myocardial Infarction. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is LEFTY1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LEFTY2 Gene

  • Required for left-right (L-R) asymmetry determination of organ systems in mammals. May play a role in endometrial bleeding.

Additional gene information for LEFTY2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LEFTY2 Gene

Genomics for LEFTY2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LEFTY2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LEFTY2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J225939 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 672.2 +0.8 812 3 USF1 ZFHX2 GLIS2 SCRT2 CBFA2T2 PRDM10 ZNF263 BHLHE40 ZNF407 USF2 LEFTY2 LEFTY1 PYCR2 TMEM63A ENSG00000248322
GH01J225874 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 23.4 +62.3 62329 10.1 FOXA2 ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 POLR2B ZNF766 ZNF213 TMEM63A LEFTY2 ACBD3 PYCR2 LEFTY1 ENSG00000255835 ENSG00000248322 SDE2 H3F3A ENSG00000242861
GH01J225887 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 23.5 +51.8 51824 4.8 ATF1 FOXA2 MLX KLF17 THRB RARA YY1 ZNF335 ZNF121 FOS LEFTY1 PYCR2 LEFTY2 TMEM63A ENSG00000255835 ENSG00000248322 DNAH14
GH01J225809 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.7 +129.2 129150 5.7 HDGF FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 EPHX1 GC01P225813 ENSG00000255835 PYCR2 ENSG00000248322 LEFTY2 LEFTY3 SRP9 ITPKB GC01P225812
GH01J225846 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 20.5 +93.3 93271 5 HDGF SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 GLIS2 ARID2 ZNF143 ENSG00000242861 PYCR2 LEFTY1 LEFTY2 TMEM63A ACBD3 ENSG00000255835 ENSG00000248322 ACBD3-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LEFTY2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LEFTY2 gene promoter:
  • Nkx2-5
  • AP-2gamma
  • Roaz
  • Pax-3
  • CREB
  • GCNF
  • GCNF-1
  • GCNF-2
  • RP58

Genomic Locations for LEFTY2 Gene

Genomic Locations for LEFTY2 Gene
4,892 bases
Minus strand
4,892 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for LEFTY2 Gene

Genes around LEFTY2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LEFTY2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LEFTY2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LEFTY2 Gene

Proteins for LEFTY2 Gene

  • Protein details for LEFTY2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Left-right determination factor 2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KNH4
    • B4E332
    • E9PDM4
    • O75611
    • Q5TE89
    • Q8NBQ9

    Protein attributes for LEFTY2 Gene

    366 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    40920 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAB53269.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Note=Authors have revised their sequence, but have not submitted the revised DNA sequence.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for LEFTY2 Gene


neXtProt entry for LEFTY2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for LEFTY2 Gene

  • The processing of the protein may also occur at the second R-X-X-R site located at AA 132-135. Processing appears to be regulated in a cell-type specific manner.
  • Glycosylation at posLast=158158
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for LEFTY2 Gene

Antibody Products

  • Abcam antibodies for LEFTY2

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LEFTY2 Gene

Domains & Families for LEFTY2 Gene

Gene Families for LEFTY2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LEFTY2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
  • Belongs to the TGF-beta family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LEFTY2: view

Function for LEFTY2 Gene

Molecular function for LEFTY2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Required for left-right (L-R) asymmetry determination of organ systems in mammals. May play a role in endometrial bleeding.

LifeMap Function Summary for LEFTY2 Gene

LEFTY2 as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LEFTY2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LEFTY2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IBA --
GO:0005160 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding IBA --
GO:0008083 growth factor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LEFTY2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LEFTY2: view

Animal Models for LEFTY2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LEFTY2:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LEFTY2 Gene

Localization for LEFTY2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LEFTY2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LEFTY2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
cytosol 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LEFTY2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0031012 extracellular matrix HDA 23658023
GO:0031093 platelet alpha granule lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LEFTY2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for LEFTY2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for LEFTY2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LEFTY2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LEFTY2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS 9153275
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA,TAS --
GO:0010469 regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA --
GO:0010862 positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LEFTY2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for LEFTY2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for LEFTY2 Gene

(4) Drugs for LEFTY2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(1) Additional Compounds for LEFTY2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LEFTY2: view

Transcripts for LEFTY2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LEFTY2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for LEFTY2 Gene

Left-right determination factor 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LEFTY2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for LEFTY2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LEFTY2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LEFTY2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LEFTY2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Uterus (x20.0), Ovary (x9.0), and Artery - Aorta (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LEFTY2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Uterus (63.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for LEFTY2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LEFTY2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LEFTY2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LEFTY2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LEFTY2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Mesenchymal cells of the endometrial stroma.
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LEFTY2: view

No data available for Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LEFTY2 Gene

Orthologs for LEFTY2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for LEFTY2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LEFTY2 34 33
  • 99.18 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LEFTY2 33
  • 88.25 (n)
-- 34
  • 83 (a)
-- 34
  • 82 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LEFTY2 33
  • 85.43 (n)
-- 34
  • 80 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lefty2 16 34 33
  • 83.33 (n)
Lefty1 34
  • 80 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lefty2 33
  • 82.41 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 54 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 42 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LEFTY2 34
  • 39 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 42 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii lft2 34
  • 36 (a)
lft1 34
  • 36 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2199 34
  • 29 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LEFTY2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for LEFTY2 Gene

Gene Tree for LEFTY2 (if available)
Gene Tree for LEFTY2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LEFTY2: view image

Paralogs for LEFTY2 Gene

Paralogs for LEFTY2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for LEFTY2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • LFTY2_HUMAN Pseudogenes for LEFTY2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LEFTY2: view

Variants for LEFTY2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LEFTY2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs112610798 likely-benign, benign, Heterotaxy syndrome, Left-right axis malformations 225,937,507(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs114492272 likely-benign, Heterotaxy syndrome 225,937,124(-) G/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs115510690 likely-benign, not specified, Heterotaxy syndrome 225,940,972(-) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121909125 pathogenic, Left-right axis malformations 225,937,602(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, stop_gained
rs121909126 pathogenic, Left-right axis malformations, Left-right axis malformations (LRAM) [MIM:601877] 225,937,517(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, downstream_transcript_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LEFTY2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2762223 CNV gain 21179565
nsv524126 CNV gain 19592680
nsv549267 CNV loss 21841781
nsv945329 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for LEFTY2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.72; 66.30% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LEFTY2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LEFTY2 Gene

Disorders for LEFTY2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for LEFTY2 Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
complete atrioventricular canal
  • cavc
apical myocardial infarction
visceral heterotaxy
  • heterotaxia
tabes dorsalis
  • posterior spinal sclerosis
tertiary neurosyphilis
  • late neurosyphilis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards


  • Left-right axis malformations (LRAM) [MIM:601877]: The defect includes left pulmonary isomerism, with cardiac anomalies characterized by complete atrioventricular canal defect and hypoplastic left ventricle, and interrupted inferior vena cava. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10053005}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for LEFTY2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LEFTY2: view

No data available for Genatlas for LEFTY2 Gene

Publications for LEFTY2 Gene

  1. Detection of ebaf, a novel human gene of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily association of gene expression with endometrial bleeding. (PMID: 9153275) Kothapalli R … Tabibzadeh S (The Journal of clinical investigation 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia. (PMID: 20634891) Jugessur A … Murray JC (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  3. A large-scale candidate gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause. (PMID: 20734064) He C … Hunter DJ (Human genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  4. Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins from oligo-capped cDNA libraries. (PMID: 16303743) Otsuki T … Isogai T (DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2005) 3 4 58
  5. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9/gelatinase B expression and activation by ovarian steroids and LEFTY-A/endometrial bleeding-associated factor in the human endometrium. (PMID: 15536155) Cornet PB … Henriet P (The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2005) 3 22 58

Products for LEFTY2 Gene

Sources for LEFTY2 Gene