Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for MRPL12 Gene

Aliases for MRPL12 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L12 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial Large Ribosomal Subunit Protein BL12m 3 4
  • MRP-L12 3 4
  • RPML12 3 4
  • 5c5-2 3 4
  • L12mt 3 4
  • MRPL7 3 4
  • 39S Ribosomal Protein L12, Mitochondrial 3
  • MRP-L31/34 3
  • MRPL7/L12 3

External Ids for MRPL12 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MRPL12 Gene

  • RPML12

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPL12 Gene

  • GC17U990085
  • GC17P080228
  • GC17P080366
  • GC17P077280
  • GC17P079670
  • GC17P075116

Summaries for MRPL12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPL12 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein which forms homodimers. In prokaryotic ribosomes, two L7/L12 dimers and one L10 protein form the L8 protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPL12 Gene

MRPL12 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L12) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MRPL12 include Brain Glioblastoma Multiforme and Brain Cancer. Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include RNA binding and structural constituent of ribosome.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL12 Gene

  • Associates with mitochondrial RNA polymerase to activate transcription.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPL12 Gene

Additional gene information for MRPL12 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPL12 Gene

Genomics for MRPL12 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRPL12 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRPL12 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J081700 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -0.6 -567 4.2 HDGF CLOCK MLX ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B IRF4 YY1 POLR2B ENSG00000262049 ENSG00000262660 MRPL12 ARL16 HGS FAAP100 CEP131 ENSG00000260563 TEPSIN NARF-IT1
GH17J081706 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.7 +3.6 3553 0.1 POLR2A MRPL12 ENSG00000262660 SLC25A10
GH17J082095 Promoter/Enhancer 2.9 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 2.9 +398.5 398453 13.5 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC SSRP1 FASN CEP131 CCDC57 TBCD HGS LOC105371942 ALYREF ARL2BPP9 ENSG00000262877 GPS1
GH17J081336 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 2.2 -361.4 -361414 10.8 PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 GC17P081340 GC17M081340 FAAP100 HGS CEP131 RFNG ENSG00000265678 TMEM105 DUS1L CCDC57
GH17J081228 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 5.7 -474.6 -474591 1 PKNOX1 ZNF687 EBF1 ELF1 DPF2 ZNF664 POLR2A IKZF1 IKZF2 SPI1 LOC105371925 NDUFAF8 MRPL12 TEPSIN
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MRPL12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPL12 gene promoter:
  • HEN1
  • Roaz
  • NRSF form 2
  • NRSF form 1
  • AP-4
  • AML1a
  • Lmo2
  • USF1
  • USF-1

Genomic Locations for MRPL12 Gene

Genomic Locations for MRPL12 Gene
4,170 bases
Plus strand
4,170 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for MRPL12 Gene

Genes around MRPL12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPL12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPL12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPL12 Gene

Proteins for MRPL12 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPL12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    39S ribosomal protein L12, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q969U0
    • Q9HCA2
    • Q9UQJ3

    Protein attributes for MRPL12 Gene

    198 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21348 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (mt-LSU) (PubMed:8626705). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins (Probable). bL12m interacts with NOA1 (PubMed:19103604).
    • Sequence=AAD16894.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=Several; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for MRPL12 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPL12 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for MRPL12 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPL12 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPL12 Gene

Gene Families for MRPL12 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Ribosomal proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MRPL12 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bL12 family.
  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bL12 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPL12: view

Function for MRPL12 Gene

Molecular function for MRPL12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Associates with mitochondrial RNA polymerase to activate transcription.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MRPL12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPL12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding TAS 8626705
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17337445
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPL12: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MRPL12 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL12

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MRPL12

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPL12 Gene

Localization for MRPL12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL12 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPL12 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPL12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA 17337445
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit TAS,IDA 20186120
GO:0005840 ribosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL12: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPL12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPL12: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPL12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006390 mitochondrial transcription IDA 17337445
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0045893 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA 17337445
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL12: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPL12 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPL12 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPL12 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPL12 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(715) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MRPL12 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MRPL12

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL12 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MRPL12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPL12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRPL12 Gene

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for MRPL12 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPL12 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPL12 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPL12 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPL12 Gene

  • Muscle(4.1)
  • Skin(2.5)
  • Lung(2.3)
  • Nervous system(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPL12: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPL12 Gene

Orthologs for MRPL12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for MRPL12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPL12 33
  • 99.66 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPL12 33
  • 87.37 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPL12 33
  • 86.2 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrpl12 16 34 33
  • 83.67 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrpl12 33
  • 82.83 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPL12 34
  • 78 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPL12 34
  • 34 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPL12 33
  • 70.78 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPL12 34
  • 57 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrpl12 33
  • 64.27 (n)
Str.1933 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24066 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrpl12 34 33
  • 64.51 (n)
Dr.9805 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpL12 34 33
  • 54.64 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP011581 33
  • 53.53 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrpl-12 34 33
  • 52.17 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AFL089C 33
  • 56.57 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MNP1 36 34 33
  • 52.97 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D03212g 33
  • 52.32 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06469 33
  • 55.77 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC4B3.09c 33
  • 46.56 (n)
Species where no ortholog for MRPL12 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPL12 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPL12 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPL12 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MRPL12: view image

Paralogs for MRPL12 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for MRPL12 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • RM12_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRPL12: view

No data available for Paralogs for MRPL12 Gene

Variants for MRPL12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPL12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1064794897 likely-benign, not specified 81,707,111(+) CTCTCTCT/CTCTCT intron_variant
rs144790349 likely-benign, not specified 81,707,219(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs149365217 likely-benign, not specified 81,706,971(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs373040169 likely-benign, not specified 81,703,456(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs534821836 likely-benign, not specified 81,704,238(+) G/A/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPL12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv26223 CNV gain+loss 19812545
nsv428351 CNV gain 18775914
nsv470620 CNV loss 18288195
nsv478614 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv828128 CNV loss 20364138
nsv952390 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for MRPL12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.82; 67.03% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRPL12 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL12 Gene

Disorders for MRPL12 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for MRPL12 Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
brain glioblastoma multiforme
  • brain glioblastoma
brain cancer
  • adult brain tumor
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for MRPL12

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MRPL12: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPL12 Gene

Publications for MRPL12 Gene

  1. A delayed-early response nuclear gene encoding MRPL12, the mitochondrial homologue to the bacterial translational regulator L7/L12 protein. (PMID: 8626705) Marty L … Fort P (The Journal of biological chemistry 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12 selectively associates with human mitochondrial RNA polymerase to activate transcription. (PMID: 22003127) Surovtseva YV … Shadel GS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2011) 3 4 58
  3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  4. hNOA1 interacts with complex I and DAP3 and regulates mitochondrial respiration and apoptosis. (PMID: 19103604) Tang T … Farquhar MG (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4 58
  5. Human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPL12 interacts directly with mitochondrial RNA polymerase to modulate mitochondrial gene expression. (PMID: 17337445) Wang Z … Shadel GS (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 3 22 58

Products for MRPL12 Gene

Sources for MRPL12 Gene

Loading form....