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Aliases for PTH Gene

Aliases for PTH Gene

  • Parathyroid Hormone 2 3 3 5
  • Parathormone 2 3 4
  • Parathyrin 2 3 4
  • Preproparathyroid Hormone 2 3
  • Parathyroid Hormone 1 2 3
  • Prepro-PTH 2 3
  • PTH1 3

External Ids for PTH Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PTH Gene

  • GC11M014784
  • GC11M014262
  • GC11M013552
  • GC11M013477
  • GC11M013193

Summaries for PTH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PTH Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the parathyroid family of proteins. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a protein that binds to the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor and regulates blood calcium and phosphate levels. Excess production of the encoded protein, known as hyperparathyroidism, can result in hypercalcemia and kidney stones. On the other hand, defective processing of the encoded protein may lead to hypoparathyroidism, which can result in hypocalcemia and numbness. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]

GeneCards Summary for PTH Gene

PTH (Parathyroid Hormone) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PTH include Hypoparathyroidism, Familial Isolated and Primary Hyperparathyroidism. Among its related pathways are Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and peptide hormone receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTH Gene

  • PTH elevates calcium level by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing their renal excretion. Stimulates [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblastic cells.

Gene Wiki entry for PTH Gene

Additional gene information for PTH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PTH Gene

Genomics for PTH Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PTH Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PTH Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J013495 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 +0.2 166 0.1 KLF1 ZNF350 ATF2 PTH ENSG00000255401 GC11M013488
GH11J013448 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 10.1 +47.2 47180 0.4 CEBPB MZF1 CEBPG ATF2 ZNF148 ATF4 ATF3 ATF7 TRIM24 BTBD10 PTH GC11P013405
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PTH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PTH gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • Tal-1beta
  • E47
  • Pax-6
  • TBP
  • C/EBPalpha

Genomic Locations for PTH Gene

Genomic Locations for PTH Gene
4,128 bases
Minus strand
4,128 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PTH Gene

Genes around PTH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PTH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PTH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PTH Gene

Proteins for PTH Gene

  • Protein details for PTH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Parathyroid hormone
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q4VB48
    • Q9UD38

    Protein attributes for PTH Gene

    115 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12861 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PTH1R (via N-terminal extracellular domain).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PTH Gene

neXtProt entry for PTH Gene

Post-translational modifications for PTH Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for PTH Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PTH Gene

Domains & Families for PTH Gene

Gene Families for PTH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PTH Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PTH Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the parathyroid hormone family.
  • Belongs to the parathyroid hormone family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PTH: view

Function for PTH Gene

Molecular function for PTH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
PTH elevates calcium level by dissolving the salts in bone and preventing their renal excretion. Stimulates [1-14C]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) transport and glycogen synthesis in osteoblastic cells.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
parathyroid hormone,9.5kDa,formed from a 12.5kDa precursor

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PTH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PTH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003705 transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding IMP 17696759
GO:0005179 hormone activity IMP 11604398
GO:0031856 parathyroid hormone receptor binding IEA,IBA --
GO:0031857 type 1 parathyroid hormone receptor binding IMP 11604398
GO:0047485 protein N-terminus binding IMP 11604398
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PTH: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PTH Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PTH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PTH:
  • Pth Pth<tm1Dgo>
  • Pth Pth<tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

miRNA for PTH Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PTH

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PTH Gene

Localization for PTH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTH Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PTH gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 3
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
endosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PTH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTH: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PTH Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PTH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PTH: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PTH Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PTH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II IDA 17696759
GO:0001501 skeletal system development TAS 10913913
GO:0006874 cellular calcium ion homeostasis IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007189 adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA 90087
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PTH: view

Drugs & Compounds for PTH Gene

(73) Drugs for PTH Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Vitamin D3 Approved Nutra Fat-soluble secosteroids 922,916
Alendronate Approved Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor Bone resorption inhibitor, Osteoclast function modifiers (important in bone metastasis) 165
Calcium Carbonate Approved, Investigational Pharma 227
Calcitriol Approved Nutra TNF-α and IL-1β production inhibitor, Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonist 223
Vitamin D Approved, Vet_approved Nutra 1796

(18) Additional Compounds for PTH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PTH: view

Transcripts for PTH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PTH Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(100) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for PTH Gene

Parathyroid hormone:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PTH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PTH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PTH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PTH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PTH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x6.4) and Thyroid (x6.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PTH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PTH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PTH Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PTH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PTH Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PTH Gene

  • Thyroid gland(4.8)
  • Bone(3.8)
  • Kidney(3.4)
  • Blood(3.3)
  • Urine(3.1)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Bone marrow(2.2)
  • Nervous system(2.2)
  • Heart(2.1)
  • Intestine(2.1)
  • Liver(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PTH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • kidney
  • pelvis
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PTH: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PTH Gene

Orthologs for PTH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PTH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PTH 34 33
  • 100 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PTH 34 33
  • 90.43 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PTH 34 33
  • 88.7 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pth 16 34 33
  • 78.55 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Pth 33
  • 78.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PTH 34
  • 45 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PTH 34 33
  • 67.3 (n)
Species where no ortholog for PTH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for PTH Gene

Gene Tree for PTH (if available)
Gene Tree for PTH (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PTH: view image

Paralogs for PTH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PTH Gene

Variants for PTH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PTH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs104894271 pathogenic, Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated, Hypoparathyroidism, familial isolated (FIH) [MIM:146200] 13,492,804(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs104894272 pathogenic, Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated, Hypoparathyroidism, familial isolated (FIH) [MIM:146200] 13,492,789(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs16912873 benign, Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated 13,492,086(-) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs369469373 likely-benign, Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated 13,492,354(-) T/C 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs6256 pathogenic, benign, Primary hyperparathyroidism, not specified, Hypoparathyroidism familial isolated 13,492,506(-) G/A/T coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PTH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1053021 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for PTH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 45.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.09; 2.08% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PTH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PTH Gene

Disorders for PTH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(81) MalaCards diseases for PTH Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypoparathyroidism, familial isolated
  • fih
primary hyperparathyroidism
  • familial benign hypercalcemia
  • hypoparathyroidism, idiopathic
renal osteodystrophy
  • renal rickets
secondary hyperparathyroidism of renal origin
  • hyperparathyroidism due to renal insufficiency
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PTH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hypoparathyroidism, familial isolated (FIH) [MIM:146200]: A disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone. Clinical features include seizures, tetany and cramps. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10523031, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18056632, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2212001}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for PTH Gene

hypoparathyroidism,familial,isolated,dominant and recessive types

Additional Disease Information for PTH

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
Tumor Gene Database
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PTH: view

Publications for PTH Gene

  1. Associations of vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone gene polymorphisms with calcium homeostasis and peripheral bone density in adult Finns. (PMID: 19690432) Laaksonen MM … Lamberg-Allardt CJ (Journal of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. [Polymorphism of parathyroid hormone gene and its association with bone mineral density of Han nationality women in Beijing area]. (PMID: 12905817) Li M … Xing XP (Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae 2001) 3 22 44 58
  3. Stimulation of glucose transport in osteoblastic cells by parathyroid hormone and insulin-like growth factor I. (PMID: 21076856) Zoidis E … Schmid C (Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2011) 3 4 58
  4. Genetic susceptibility to distinct bladder cancer subphenotypes. (PMID: 19692168) Guey LT … EPICURO/Spanish Bladder Cancer Study investigators (European urology 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58

Products for PTH Gene

Sources for PTH Gene

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