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Aliases for GJC2 Gene

Aliases for GJC2 Gene

  • Gap Junction Protein Gamma 2 2 3 5
  • Gap Junction Protein, Gamma 2, 47kDa 2 3
  • Gap Junction Alpha-12 Protein 3 4
  • Connexin-46.6 3 4
  • Connexin-47 3 4
  • CX46.6 3 4
  • GJA12 3 4
  • Cx47 3 4
  • Gap Junction Protein, Alpha 12, 47kDa 2
  • Gap Junction Gamma-2 Protein 3
  • Connexin 47 2
  • LMPH1C 3
  • PMLDAR 3
  • SPG44 3
  • HLD2 3

External Ids for GJC2 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GJC2 Gene

  • GJA12

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GJC2 Gene

  • GC01P226405
  • GC01P228337
  • GC01P198852

Summaries for GJC2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GJC2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a gap junction protein. Gap junction proteins are members of a large family of homologous connexins and comprise 4 transmembrane, 2 extracellular, and 3 cytoplasmic domains. This gene plays a key role in central myelination and is involved in peripheral myelination in humans. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GJC2 Gene

GJC2 (Gap Junction Protein Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GJC2 include Leukodystrophy, Hypomyelinating, 2 and Spastic Paraplegia 44, Autosomal Recessive. Among its related pathways are Gap junction trafficking and Vesicle-mediated transport. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include gap junction channel activity. An important paralog of this gene is GJC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GJC2 Gene

  • One gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. May play a role in myelination in central and peripheral nervous systems.

Tocris Summary for GJC2 Gene

  • Gap channels (gap junctions) are specialized cell-cell contacts that provide direct intracellular communication. They allow passive diffusion of molecules up to 1 kDa, including nutrients, metabolites (glucose), ions (K+, Ca2+) and second messengers (IP3, cAMP).

Gene Wiki entry for GJC2 Gene

Additional gene information for GJC2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GJC2 Gene

Genomics for GJC2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GJC2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GJC2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I228147 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 557.5 +0.6 637 5 PKNOX1 ARID4B KLF17 GLIS2 EGR2 SP5 REST ZNF398 PPARG ZFP69B GJC2 OBSCN-AS1 OBSCN IBA57 ENSG00000269934 GUK1 GC01P228162
GH01I228485 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 5.6 +337.8 337833 3.3 CLOCK FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 RNF187 ENSG00000279306 CICP26 ZNF678 C1orf35 ENSG00000269890 MRPL55 GJC2 LOC105373124
GH01I228445 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4.5 +296.4 296374 1.1 MXI1 USF1 MAX BMI1 ZBTB40 POLR2A EGR1 EZH2 NR2F1 USF2 TRIM17 OBSCN TRIM11 ENSG00000231563 OBSCN-AS1 WNT3A GJC2 HIST3H2A RPL23AP15 HIST3H3
GH01I228472 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 5.3 +323.1 323087 0.4 JUN NR2F1 MAX CBFA2T3 ATF2 ZNF592 GABPB1 ID3 NR2C1 CBFA2T2 OBSCN GJC2 HIST3H2BA RNF187
GH01I228205 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 1.7 +58.7 58666 6.3 STAT1 MAZ ZIC2 SMARCB1 ZFP69B GLIS2 GATA2 ZNF692 POLR2A GLIS1 OBSCN RNF187 TRIM17 GJC2 OBSCN-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GJC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GJC2 gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GJC2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GJC2 Gene
10,113 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GJC2 Gene

Genes around GJC2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GJC2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GJC2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GJC2 Gene

Proteins for GJC2 Gene

  • Protein details for GJC2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Gap junction gamma-2 protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O43440
    • Q7Z7J2
    • Q8IWJ9

    Protein attributes for GJC2 Gene

    439 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    47002 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • A connexon is composed of a hexamer of connexins. Interacts with TJP1 (By similarity).
    • Sequence=AAB94511.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAH35840.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for GJC2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GJC2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GJC2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GJC2 Gene

Domains & Families for GJC2 Gene

Gene Families for GJC2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for GJC2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GJC2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the connexin family. Gamma-type subfamily.
  • Belongs to the connexin family. Gamma-type subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GJC2: view

Function for GJC2 Gene

Molecular function for GJC2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
One gap junction consists of a cluster of closely packed pairs of transmembrane channels, the connexons, through which materials of low MW diffuse from one cell to a neighboring cell. May play a role in myelination in central and peripheral nervous systems.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GJC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005243 gap junction channel activity IEA --
GO:1903763 gap junction channel activity involved in cell communication by electrical coupling IMP 17344063
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GJC2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GJC2: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for GJC2 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for GJC2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GJC2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GJC2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GJC2

Inhibitory RNA Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GJC2 Gene

Localization for GJC2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GJC2 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Cell junction, gap junction.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GJC2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GJC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IEA --
GO:0005921 gap junction IMP 17344063
GO:0005922 connexin complex IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GJC2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GJC2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GJC2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GJC2: view

Pathways by source for GJC2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GJC2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0007154 cell communication IEA --
GO:0007267 cell-cell signaling IEA --
GO:0007420 brain development IEA --
GO:0009636 response to toxic substance IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GJC2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GJC2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GJC2 Gene

(9) Drugs for GJC2 Gene - From: DGIdb, IUPHAR, and Tocris

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Carbenoxolone Experimental Pharma Inhibitor 0
Flufenamic Acid Experimental Pharma Channel blocker 1
octanol Investigational Pharma Inhibitor 0
Ca<sup>2+</sup> Pharma Activator 0
10Panx Pharma Panx-1 mimetic inhibitor, Panx-1 mimetic inhibitory peptide; blocks pannexin-1 gap junctions 0

(5) Tocris Compounds for GJC2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
10Panx Panx-1 mimetic inhibitory peptide; blocks pannexin-1 gap junctions 955091-53-9
Carbenoxolone disodium Gap junction blocker. Also inhibitor of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 7421-40-1
Gap 26 Gap junction blocker; inhibits smooth muscle contraction and IP3-mediated ATP release 197250-15-0
Gap 27 Selective gap junction blocker 198284-64-9
Scrambled 10Panx Scrambled version of 10Panx (Cat. No. 3348), Panx-1 mimetic inhibitory peptide 1315378-72-3
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GJC2: view

Transcripts for GJC2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GJC2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(4) Additional mRNA sequences :
(32) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GJC2 Gene

Gap junction protein, gamma 2, 47kDa:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GJC2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GJC2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GJC2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GJC2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GJC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x10.9) and Brain - Substantia nigra (x6.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GJC2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (61.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GJC2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GJC2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GJC2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GJC2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GJC2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in central nervous system, in sciatic nerve and sural nerve. Also detected in skeletal muscles.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GJC2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.5)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GJC2 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • neck
  • chest wall
  • heart
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • abdominal wall
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • pelvis
  • placenta
  • testicle
  • uterus
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • hair
  • lymph node
  • lymph vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GJC2: view

Primer Products

Orthologs for GJC2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GJC2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GJC2 33 34
  • 99.54 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GJC2 33 34
  • 81.68 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GJC2 33
  • 81.4 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gjc2 33 16 34
  • 80.59 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gjc2 33
  • 79.83 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GJC2 34
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GJC2 34
  • 57 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GJC2 34
  • 56 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia Str.2895 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cx47.1 34
  • 53 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GJC2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GJC2 Gene

Gene Tree for GJC2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GJC2 (if available)

Paralogs for GJC2 Gene

Paralogs for GJC2 Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for GJC2 Gene using alignment to 2 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GJC2: view

Variants for GJC2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GJC2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs116557768 benign, Spastic paraplegia, not specified 228,158,352(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs139992251 likely-benign, benign, not specified, Spastic paraplegia 228,157,905(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs140942230 likely-benign, Spastic paraplegia, not provided 228,158,951(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs201796910 benign, Spastic paraplegia 228,158,286(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs267606846 pathogenic, Lymphedema, hereditary, IC, Lymphedema, hereditary, 1C (LMPH1C) [MIM:613480] 228,158,536(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GJC2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv105n67 CNV gain 20364138
dgv839n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv32853 CNV gain 17666407
nsv1160102 CNV deletion 26073780
nsv473804 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv523935 CNV loss 19592680
nsv549290 CNV loss 21841781
nsv549291 CNV loss 21841781
nsv826908 CNV gain 20364138
nsv827019 CNV loss 20364138
nsv827031 CNV gain 20364138
nsv952137 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for GJC2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 34.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.87; 18.23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GJC2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GJC2 Gene

Disorders for GJC2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(25) MalaCards diseases for GJC2 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards


  • Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 2 (HLD2) [MIM:608804]: An autosomal recessive hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with symptoms of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. Clinically characterized by nystagmus, impaired motor development, ataxia, choreoathetotic movements, dysarthria, and progressive spasticity. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15192806}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Lymphedema, hereditary, 1C (LMPH1C) [MIM:613480]: A chronic disabling condition which results in swelling of the extremities due to altered lymphatic flow. Patients with lymphedema suffer from recurrent local infections and physical impairment. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20537300}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Spastic paraplegia 44, autosomal recessive (SPG44) [MIM:613206]: A form of spastic paraplegia, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a slow, gradual, progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. Rate of progression and the severity of symptoms are quite variable. Initial symptoms may include difficulty with balance, weakness and stiffness in the legs, muscle spasms, and dragging the toes when walking. In some forms of the disorder, bladder symptoms (such as incontinence) may appear, or the weakness and stiffness may spread to other parts of the body. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:19056803}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for GJC2

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GJC2: view

No data available for Genatlas for GJC2 Gene

Publications for GJC2 Gene

  1. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a novel phenotype for GJA12/GJC2 mutations. (PMID: 19056803) Orthmann-Murphy JL … Pareyson D (Brain : a journal of neurology 2009) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Mutations in the gene encoding gap junction protein alpha 12 (connexin 46.6) cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. (PMID: 15192806) Uhlenberg B … Gärtner J (American journal of human genetics 2004) 3 4 22 58
  3. GJC2 missense mutations cause human lymphedema. (PMID: 20537300) Ferrell RE … Finegold DN (American journal of human genetics 2010) 3 4 58
  4. Two novel gap junction protein alpha 12 gene mutations in two Chinese patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. (PMID: 19423250) Wang J … Jiang Y (Brain & development 2010) 3 22 58
  5. Analysis of human alternative first exons and copy number variation of the GJA12 gene in patients with Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease. (PMID: 18521858) Ruf N … Uhlenberg B (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009) 3 22 58

Products for GJC2 Gene

Sources for GJC2 Gene

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