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Aliases for ANKH Gene

Aliases for ANKH Gene

  • ANKH Inorganic Pyrophosphate Transport Regulator 2 3 5
  • ANK 3 4
  • Craniometaphyseal Dysplasia, Jackson Type (Dominant) 2
  • Ankylosis, Progressive (Mouse) Homolog 2
  • Ankylosis, Progressive Homolog (Mouse) 2
  • Progressive Ankylosis Protein Homolog 3
  • Ankylosis, Progressive Homolog 3
  • KIAA1581 4
  • SLC62A1 3
  • CPPDD 3
  • CCAL2 3
  • HANK 3
  • MANK 3
  • CMDJ 3

External Ids for ANKH Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for ANKH Gene

  • CCAL2
  • CMDJ

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ANKH Gene

  • GC05M014695
  • GC05M014982
  • GC05M014757
  • GC05M014761
  • GC05M014762
  • GC05M014705

Summaries for ANKH Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ANKH Gene

  • This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that is expressed in joints and other tissues and controls pyrophosphate levels in cultured cells. Progressive ankylosis-mediated control of pyrophosphate levels has been suggested as a possible mechanism regulating tissue calcification and susceptibility to arthritis in higher animals. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ANKH Gene

ANKH (ANKH Inorganic Pyrophosphate Transport Regulator) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ANKH include Craniometaphyseal Dysplasia, Autosomal Dominant and Chondrocalcinosis 2. Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Miscellaneous transport and binding events. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include inorganic phosphate transmembrane transporter activity and inorganic diphosphate transmembrane transporter activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ANKH Gene

  • Regulates intra- and extracellular levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), probably functioning as PPi transporter.

Gene Wiki entry for ANKH Gene

Additional gene information for ANKH Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ANKH Gene

Genomics for ANKH Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ANKH Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ANKH Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH05J014868 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 665.9 +1.0 1001 5.5 PKNOX1 SIN3A ZNF2 YY1 GLIS2 ZNF143 DEK RXRA REST SMARCB1 ANKH ENSG00000272057 MIR4637
GH05J014727 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.3 +143.3 143250 2.7 FOXA2 ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF48 ETS1 YY1 TCF12 ARID2 ZNF143 ANKH OTULIN GC05M014699 GC05P014801
GH05J014850 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 24.8 +20.0 20036 3.2 ZNF362 HLF CBFA2T3 OSR2 ZSCAN21 GLIS1 VEZF1 ZNF600 PRDM10 ZXDB ANKH MIR4637
GH05J014925 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 10.6 -54.5 -54455 1.6 FOXA2 MAX EBF1 BATF ZFHX2 POLR2A EGR1 NFATC1 EED FOS ANKH SEPHS2P1 LOC105374661
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ANKH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ANKH gene promoter:
  • GR-alpha
  • GR
  • FOXO4
  • ATF6
  • NF-1/L
  • NF-1
  • E47
  • AML1a
  • Egr-2
  • CUTL1

Genomic Locations for ANKH Gene

Genomic Locations for ANKH Gene
166,986 bases
Minus strand
166,979 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for ANKH Gene

Genes around ANKH on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ANKH Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ANKH Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ANKH Gene

Proteins for ANKH Gene

  • Protein details for ANKH Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Progressive ankylosis protein homolog
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCA7
    • B3KMG4
    • D3DTD4
    • Q9NQW2

    Protein attributes for ANKH Gene

    492 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    54241 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=BAB13407.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for ANKH Gene


neXtProt entry for ANKH Gene

Post-translational modifications for ANKH Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ANKH Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ANKH Gene

Domains & Families for ANKH Gene

Gene Families for ANKH Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for ANKH Gene


Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ANKH family.
  • Belongs to the ANKH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ANKH: view

Function for ANKH Gene

Molecular function for ANKH Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulates intra- and extracellular levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), probably functioning as PPi transporter.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ANKH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ANKH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005315 inorganic phosphate transmembrane transporter activity IDA 11326272
GO:0015114 phosphate ion transmembrane transporter activity IEA --
GO:0030504 inorganic diphosphate transmembrane transporter activity TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ANKH: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ANKH: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ANKH Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ANKH Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ANKH:
  • Ank Ank<tm1.1Kng>

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ANKH Gene

Localization for ANKH Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ANKH Gene

Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ANKH gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 2
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ANKH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS,IEA --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane ISS,IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA,IDA 11326272
GO:0019867 outer membrane TAS 11326272
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ANKH: view

Pathways & Interactions for ANKH Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ANKH: view

Pathways by source for ANKH Gene

Interacting Proteins for ANKH Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ANKH Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001501 skeletal system development NAS 10894769
GO:0006817 phosphate ion transport IEA --
GO:0007626 locomotory behavior NAS 10894769
GO:0030500 regulation of bone mineralization IEA,TAS 11326272
GO:0030505 inorganic diphosphate transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ANKH: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ANKH Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ANKH Gene

(1) Drugs for ANKH Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Approved Nutra 0

(2) Additional Compounds for ANKH Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ANKH: view

Transcripts for ANKH Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ANKH Gene

Unigene Clusters for ANKH Gene

Ankylosis, progressive homolog (mouse):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ANKH Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for ANKH Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ANKH Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ANKH Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ANKH Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart (50.3), Retina (9.4), and Frontal cortex (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ANKH Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ANKH Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ANKH Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ANKH Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ANKH Gene:

Tissue specificity: Found in osteoblasts from mandibular bone and from iliac bone; not detected in osteoclastic cells.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ANKH Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Eye(2.5)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ANKH Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • inner ear
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • middle ear
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • tooth
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • pelvis
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ANKH: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for ANKH Gene

Orthologs for ANKH Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for ANKH Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ANKH 34 33
  • 99.46 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ANKH 34
  • 98 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ANKH 34
  • 94 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ANKH 34 33
  • 90.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ANKH 34 33
  • 90.33 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ank 16 34 33
  • 89.57 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ankh 33
  • 89.57 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ANKH 34 33
  • 83.4 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ANKH 34
  • 94 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ankh 33
  • 77.71 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.11973 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ankha 34
  • 76 (a)
ankhb 34 33
  • 75.47 (n)
ankh 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.4440 33
Species where no ortholog for ANKH was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ANKH Gene

Gene Tree for ANKH (if available)
Gene Tree for ANKH (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ANKH: view image

Paralogs for ANKH Gene

No data available for Paralogs for ANKH Gene

Variants for ANKH Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ANKH Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 05 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1056020010 uncertain-significance, Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, Chondrocalcinosis 14,710,116(-) G/A 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs1056464855 uncertain-significance, Chondrocalcinosis, Craniometaphyseal dysplasia 14,716,776(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs111369645 likely-benign, Chondrocalcinosis, Craniometaphyseal dysplasia 14,711,186(-) C/G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant
rs112513380 likely-benign, Chondrocalcinosis, Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, not specified 14,713,572(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant
rs112742497 likely-benign, Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, Chondrocalcinosis 14,758,467(-) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ANKH Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv28799 CNV loss 19812545
esv3570001 CNV loss 25503493
esv3604098 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1018187 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1026914 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1112869 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1148187 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv4728 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv4729 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv597257 CNV gain 21841781
nsv597258 CNV gain 21841781
nsv830212 CNV loss 17160897
nsv968141 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ANKH Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.32; 26.24% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ANKH Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ANKH Gene

Disorders for ANKH Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(18) MalaCards diseases for ANKH Gene - From: LncRNADisease, HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
  • cmdd
chondrocalcinosis 2
  • ccal2
familial calcium pyrophosphate deposition
  • calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease
  • calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ANKH in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Chondrocalcinosis 2 (CCAL2) [MIM:118600]: Chondrocalcinosis is a common cause of joint pain and arthritis caused by calcium deposition in articular cartilage and the presence of calcium hypophosphate crystals in synovial fluid, cartilage and periarticular soft tissue. CCAL2 inheritance is autosomal dominant. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12297987, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12297989, ECO:0000269 PubMed:13130483}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant (CMDD) [MIM:123000]: An osteochondrodysplasia characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones associated with abnormal modeling of the metaphyses. Sclerosis of the skull may lead to asymmetry of the mandible, as well as to cranial nerve compression, that may finally result in hearing loss and facial palsy. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11326272, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11326338}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ANKH

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ANKH: view

No data available for Genatlas for ANKH Gene

Publications for ANKH Gene

  1. Autosomal dominant familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease is caused by mutation in the transmembrane protein ANKH. (PMID: 12297989) Williams CJ … Brown MA (American journal of human genetics 2002) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia is caused by mutations in the transmembrane protein ANK. (PMID: 11326338) Reichenberger E … Olsen BR (American journal of human genetics 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Contribution of the putative genetic factors and ANKH gene polymorphisms to variation of circulating calciotropic molecules, PTH and BGP. (PMID: 17403715) Vistoropsky Y … Livshits G (Human molecular genetics 2007) 3 22 44 58
  4. Cuff tear arthropathy: evidence of functional variation in pyrophosphate metabolism genes. (PMID: 17563703) Peach CA … Carr AJ (Clinical orthopaedics and related research 2007) 3 22 44 58
  5. Association of sporadic chondrocalcinosis with a -4-basepair G-to-A transition in the 5'-untranslated region of ANKH that promotes enhanced expression of ANKH protein and excess generation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate. (PMID: 15818664) Zhang Y … Brown MA (Arthritis and rheumatism 2005) 3 22 44 58

Products for ANKH Gene

Sources for ANKH Gene

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