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Aliases for PRL Gene

Aliases for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin 2 3 3 5
  • Decidual Prolactin 3
  • Growth Hormone A1 3
  • GHA1 3

External Ids for PRL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PRL Gene

  • GC06M022345
  • GC06M022395

Summaries for PRL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PRL Gene

  • This gene encodes the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin. This secreted hormone is a growth regulator for many tissues, including cells of the immune system. It may also play a role in cell survival by suppressing apoptosis, and it is essential for lactation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for PRL Gene

PRL (Prolactin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PRL include Empty Sella Syndrome and Sheehan Syndrome. Among its related pathways are Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network and TGF-Beta Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity and prolactin receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

  • Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.

Gene Wiki entry for PRL Gene

Additional gene information for PRL Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PRL Gene

Genomics for PRL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PRL Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PRL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH06J022302 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 650.7 +0.0 28 0.1 RUNX3 PRL ENSG00000261568 CASC15
GH06J022297 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 650.4 +5.8 5827 0.1 PRL ENSG00000261568 CASC15
GH06J022320 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 0.4 -18.1 -18084 0.2 SP1 JUND JUN FOSL2 FOS PRL GC06P022347 CASC15
GH06J022271 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl 0.3 +31.7 31682 0.4 ZBED1 STAT5A MEF2B ATF2 IKZF1 EED ETV6 BCLAF1 IKZF2 RUNX3 PRL ENSG00000261568 CASC15
GH06J022248 Enhancer 0.8 Ensembl ENCODE 0.2 +53.9 53928 1.4 SIX5 CEBPB REST ZEB2 FOXA1 NR2F2 SP1 CTBP1 GATA3 JUND ENSG00000261568 PRL CASC15
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PRL gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • STAT3
  • FOXO1a
  • FOXO1
  • IRF-1
  • NF-kappaB1

Genomic Locations for PRL Gene

Genomic Locations for PRL Gene
15,640 bases
Minus strand
15,608 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for PRL Gene

Genes around PRL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PRL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PRL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PRL Gene

Proteins for PRL Gene

  • Protein details for PRL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15199
    • Q92996

    Protein attributes for PRL Gene

    227 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    25876 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=CAA38264.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=8; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PRL Gene

neXtProt entry for PRL Gene

Post-translational modifications for PRL Gene

  • Glycosylation at Asn59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PRL Gene

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PRL Gene

Domains & Families for PRL Gene

Gene Families for PRL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PRL Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PRL Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
  • Belongs to the somatotropin/prolactin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PRL: view

Function for PRL Gene

Molecular function for PRL Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Prolactin acts primarily on the mammary gland by promoting lactation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PRL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005148 prolactin receptor binding TAS 10854700
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 22325776
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PRL: view

Animal Models for PRL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PRL:
  • Prl Prl<tm1Hmn>

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PRL Gene

Localization for PRL Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PRL gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
endosome 5
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
GO:0031904 endosome lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Pathways & Interactions for PRL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PRL: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PRL Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PRL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001937 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA 23619365
GO:0007166 cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS 10854700
GO:0007565 female pregnancy NAS 7221563
GO:0007595 lactation IEA --
GO:0008283 cell proliferation TAS 10854700
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PRL: view

Drugs & Compounds for PRL Gene

(99) Drugs for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(22) Additional Compounds for PRL Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PRL: view

Transcripts for PRL Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PRL Gene

Unigene Clusters for PRL Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PRL Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for PRL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PRL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x52.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PRL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal gut (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for PRL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PRL Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PRL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PRL Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PRL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Blood(4)
  • Eye(3.3)
  • Adrenal gland(2.7)
  • Thyroid gland(2.6)
  • Skin(2.2)
  • Kidney(2)
  • Liver(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PRL: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PRL Gene

Orthologs for PRL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PRL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PRL 34 33
  • 99.27 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PRL 34 33
  • 86.34 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PRL 34 33
  • 80.32 (n)
-- 34
  • 43 (a)
-- 34
  • 42 (a)
PRP9 34
  • 42 (a)
PRP8 34
  • 40 (a)
-- 34
  • 39 (a)
PRP2 34
  • 39 (a)
PRP14 34
  • 38 (a)
-- 34
  • 38 (a)
PRP6 34
  • 38 (a)
PRP7 34
  • 38 (a)
CSH1 34
  • 37 (a)
PRP1 34
  • 37 (a)
PRP5 34
  • 37 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PRL 34
  • 74 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Prl 33
  • 72.41 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Prl 16 34 33
  • 71.85 (n)
Prl2a1 34
  • 42 (a)
Prl6a1 34
  • 40 (a)
Prl3a1 34
  • 39 (a)
Prl4a1 34
  • 39 (a)
Prl3b1 34
  • 39 (a)
Prl2c5 34
  • 37 (a)
Prl7d1 34
  • 37 (a)
Prl2c1 34
  • 37 (a)
Prl3d1 34
  • 36 (a)
Prl2c3 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl7c1 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl3d3 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl2c2 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl7b1 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl3d2 34
  • 35 (a)
Prl5a1 34
  • 32 (a)
Prl2b1 34
  • 32 (a)
Prl8a1 34
  • 30 (a)
Prl8a2 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a6 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl7a1 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a8 34
  • 29 (a)
Prl8a9 34
  • 28 (a)
Prl7a2 34
  • 28 (a)
Prl3c1 34
  • 26 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PRL 34
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PRL 34 33
  • 72.06 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PRL 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia prl.1 33
  • 66.17 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii prl 34
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PRL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PRL Gene

Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
Gene Tree for PRL (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PRL: view image

Paralogs for PRL Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PRL Gene

Variants for PRL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PRL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 06 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000159359 -- 22,304,149(-) A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000232359 -- 22,303,593(-) A/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000405800 -- 22,289,400(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000768869 -- 22,303,259(-) A/G upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001425245 -- 22,290,886(-) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PRL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv5924n100 CNV loss 25217958
esv3608333 CNV loss 21293372
nsv601119 CNV loss 21841781
nsv830604 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for PRL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.81; 16.97% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PRL Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PRL Gene

Disorders for PRL Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(120) MalaCards diseases for PRL Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
empty sella syndrome
  • empty sella turcica
sheehan syndrome
  • simmond's disease
pituitary apoplexy
chromophobe adenoma
  • chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary gland
pituitary gland disease
  • pituitary disease
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PRL in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PRL

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
Tumor Gene Database
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PRL: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PRL Gene

Publications for PRL Gene

  1. A comprehensive analysis of common genetic variation in prolactin (PRL) and PRL receptor (PRLR) genes in relation to plasma prolactin levels and breast cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. (PMID: 18053149) Lee SA … Stram DO (BMC medical genetics 2007) 3 22 44 58
  2. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the cytochrome P450 17A1, prolactin, and catechol-O-methyltransferase genes and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk. (PMID: 16214922) Skibola CF … Holly EA (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2005) 3 22 44 58
  3. Genome-wide association identifies three new susceptibility loci for Paget's disease of bone. (PMID: 21623375) Albagha OM … Genetic Determinants of Paget's Disease (GDPD) Consortium (Nature genetics 2011) 3 44 58
  4. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha subunit 1C is a novel candidate gene associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism: an application of haplotype-based analysis for multiple linked single nucleotide polymorphisms. (PMID: 20424473) Yokoyama K … Hosoya T (Nephron. Clinical practice 2010) 3 44 58
  5. Examination of genetic polymorphisms in newborns for signatures of sex-specific prenatal selection. (PMID: 20587610) Ucisik-Akkaya E … Dorak MT (Molecular human reproduction 2010) 3 44 58

Products for PRL Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PRL

Sources for PRL Gene

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