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Aliases for PGM2 Gene

Aliases for PGM2 Gene

  • Phosphoglucomutase 2 2 3 5
  • Glucose Phosphomutase 2 3 4
  • Phosphodeoxyribomutase 3 4
  • Phosphopentomutase 2 4
  • PGM 2 3 4
  • Phosphoglucomutase-2 3
  • EC 4
  • EC 4
  • MSTP006 3

External Ids for PGM2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PGM2 Gene

  • GC04U990041
  • GC04P037725
  • GC04P037650
  • GC04P037504
  • GC04P037152

Summaries for PGM2 Gene

GeneCards Summary for PGM2 Gene

PGM2 (Phosphoglucomutase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG) and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include magnesium ion binding and phosphoglucomutase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PGM2L1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGM2 Gene

  • Catalyzes the conversion of the nucleoside breakdown products ribose-1-phosphate and deoxyribose-1-phosphate to the corresponding 5-phosphopentoses. May also catalyze the interconversion of glucose-1-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. Has low glucose 1,6-bisphosphate synthase activity.

Gene Wiki entry for PGM2 Gene

Additional gene information for PGM2 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PGM2 Gene

Genomics for PGM2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PGM2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PGM2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J037825 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 728.4 +0.1 92 2.7 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 PGM2 ENSG00000279386
GH04J037802 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 83 -24.4 -24379 0.2 ELF3 ZFP64 ARID4B RAD21 RFX5 ZNF614 ZNF143 RCOR1 THAP11 MIXL1 PGM2 TBC1D1 ENSG00000248936 RELL1 GC04P037820 LOC105374406
GH04J037815 Enhancer 0.6 Ensembl ENCODE 77.8 -10.4 -10355 0.8 EGR1 ZFP91 EGR2 PGM2 GC04P037820 LOC105374406
GH04J037810 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 72.7 -15.8 -15813 1.4 TAL1 ZSCAN4 CBFA2T3 TCF12 NCOR1 HNF4A KDM1A CBFA2T2 PGM2 GC04P037820 LOC105374406
GH04J037812 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 72.5 -13.7 -13683 1.1 JUND JUN CEBPB EP300 PGM2 GC04P037820 LOC105374406
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PGM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PGM2 gene promoter:
  • ARP-1
  • E2F
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-4
  • E2F-5
  • TBP
  • Tal-1beta
  • ITF-2

Genomic Locations for PGM2 Gene

Genomic Locations for PGM2 Gene
36,306 bases
Plus strand
36,305 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PGM2 Gene

Genes around PGM2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PGM2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PGM2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PGM2 Gene

Proteins for PGM2 Gene

  • Protein details for PGM2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4E0G8
    • Q53FP5
    • Q5QTR0
    • Q9H0P9
    • Q9NV22

    Protein attributes for PGM2 Gene

    612 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    68283 Da
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for PGM2 Gene


neXtProt entry for PGM2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for PGM2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys292, Lys91, and Lys27
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PGM2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PGM2 Gene

Domains & Families for PGM2 Gene

Gene Families for PGM2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PGM2 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the phosphohexose mutase family.
  • Belongs to the phosphohexose mutase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PGM2: view

Function for PGM2 Gene

Molecular function for PGM2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of the nucleoside breakdown products ribose-1-phosphate and deoxyribose-1-phosphate to the corresponding 5-phosphopentoses. May also catalyze the interconversion of glucose-1-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate. Has low glucose 1,6-bisphosphate synthase activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate = alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate = D-ribose 5-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate = 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 5-phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=45.7 uM for alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804405}; KM=4.1 uM for 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804405}; KM=114 uM for alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804405}; Vmax=104.3 umol/min/mg enzyme with alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804405}; Vmax=20.8 umol/min/mg enzyme with 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1- phosphate as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804405}; Vmax=22.8 umol/min/mg enzyme with alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate as substrate {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17804405};
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
phosphoglucomutase 2

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PGM2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PGM2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PGM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000287 magnesium ion binding IEA --
GO:0004614 phosphoglucomutase activity EXP 1840235
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 21044950
GO:0008973 phosphopentomutase activity TAS --
GO:0016853 isomerase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGM2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PGM2: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PGM2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PGM2 Gene

Localization for PGM2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGM2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PGM2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Intermediate filaments (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PGM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS,IBA --
GO:0034774 secretory granule lumen TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGM2: view

Pathways & Interactions for PGM2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PGM2: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q96G03-PGM2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Carbohydrate degradation; 2-deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation; D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and acetaldehyde from 2-deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate: step 1/2.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PGM2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005975 carbohydrate metabolic process IEA --
GO:0005978 glycogen biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0005980 glycogen catabolic process TAS --
GO:0006006 glucose metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006098 pentose-phosphate shunt TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PGM2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PGM2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PGM2 Gene

(7) Drugs for PGM2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Magnesium Approved Nutra 0
Alpha-D-Glucose 1,6-bisphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
D-Mannose 1-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Glucose 1-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Glucose 6-phosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(6) Additional Compounds for PGM2 Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Deoxyribose 1-phosphate
  • 2-Deoxy-1-O-phosphono-D-erythro-pentofuranose
  • 2-Deoxy-1-O-phosphono-D-ribofuranose
  • 2-Deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate
  • Deoxyribose 1-phosphoric acid
  • 2-Deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphoric acid
Deoxyribose 5-monophosphate
Deoxyribose 5-phosphate
  • 2-Deoxy-alpha-D-ribose 5-phosphate
  • 2-Deoxy-alpha-delta-ribose 5-phosphate
  • 2-Deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate
  • 2-Deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate
  • 2-Deoxyribose 5-phosphate
D-Ribose 5-phosphate
  • D-Ribose 5'-phosphate
  • D-Ribose-5-P
  • Ribose 5-phosphate
  • D-Ribose 5'-phosphoric acid
  • D-Ribose 5-phosphoric acid
ribose 1-phosphate
  • 1-O-phosphono-alpha-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1-phospho-alpha-D-Ribofuranose
  • D-Ribose 1-phosphate
  • 1-O-phosphono-a-D-Ribofuranose
  • 1-O-phosphono-α-D-ribofuranose
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PGM2: view

Transcripts for PGM2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for PGM2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for PGM2 Gene

Phosphoglucomutase 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PGM2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PGM2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14
SP1: -
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for PGM2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PGM2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PGM2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PGM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Esophagus - Mucosa (x4.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PGM2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Retina (10.8), Lymph node (9.1), and Uterus (7.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PGM2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PGM2 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PGM2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PGM2 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PGM2 Gene

  • Blood(4.5)
  • Liver(4.3)
  • Kidney(4.2)
  • Muscle(4.2)
  • Stomach(4.2)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PGM2: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PGM2 Gene

Orthologs for PGM2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for PGM2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PGM2 34 33
  • 96.51 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PGM2 34 33
  • 90.52 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PGM2 34 33
  • 88.89 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Pgm1 16 34 33
  • 85.25 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 83 (a)
-- 34
  • 82 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PGM2 34
  • 81 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PGM2 34 33
  • 76.74 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PGM2 34
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia pgm2 33
  • 72.71 (n)
Str.2180 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii pgm2 34 33
  • 67.82 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008305 33
  • 57.97 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Pmm45A 34 33
  • 53.46 (n)
CG10202 34
  • 41 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y43F4B.5 34 33
  • 53.96 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ABL126W 33
  • 49.83 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PGM3 34 33
  • 49.8 (n)
PRM15 36
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0D01573g 33
  • 49.41 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.6664 34
  • 56 (a)
Cin.3456 33
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPCC1840.05c 33
  • 51.88 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.3456 33
Species where no ortholog for PGM2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for PGM2 Gene

Gene Tree for PGM2 (if available)
Gene Tree for PGM2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PGM2: view image

Paralogs for PGM2 Gene

Paralogs for PGM2 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PGM2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • B4E0G8_HUMAN
  • E9PD70_HUMAN
  • F5H6V2_HUMAN
  • H0Y921_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PGM2: view

Variants for PGM2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PGM2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs10000528 -- 37,843,257(+) G/A/T intron_variant
rs1000054876 -- 37,826,735(+) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, initiator_codon_variant, missense_variant
rs10000814 -- 37,843,632(+) G/A intron_variant
rs10001580 -- 37,850,235(+) A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000251733 -- 37,832,577(+) T/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PGM2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv526455 CNV loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for PGM2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 58.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.13; 61.34% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PGM2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PGM2 Gene

Disorders for PGM2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for PGM2

No disorders were found for PGM2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PGM2 Gene

Publications for PGM2 Gene

  1. Molecular identification of mammalian phosphopentomutase and glucose-1,6-bisphosphate synthase, two members of the alpha-D-phosphohexomutase family. (PMID: 17804405) Maliekal P … Van Schaftingen E (The Journal of biological chemistry 2007) 3 4 22 58
  2. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. (PMID: 14702039) Ota T … Sugano S (Nature genetics 2004) 3 4 58
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  4. Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides. (PMID: 12665801) Gevaert K … Vandekerckhove J (Nature biotechnology 2003) 3 4 58
  5. Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs. (PMID: 11230166) Wiemann S … Poustka A (Genome research 2001) 3 4 58

Products for PGM2 Gene

Sources for PGM2 Gene

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