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Aliases for PPOX Gene

Aliases for PPOX Gene

  • Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase 2 3 5
  • PPO 3 4
  • Variegate Porphyria 2
  • EC 4
  • V290M 3
  • VP 3

External Ids for PPOX Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for PPOX Gene

  • VP

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PPOX Gene

  • GC01P158847
  • GC01P156868
  • GC01P157914
  • GC01P158352
  • GC01P157949
  • GC01P159402
  • GC01P161136
  • GC01P132493

Summaries for PPOX Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PPOX Gene

  • This gene encodes the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis, which catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to form protoporphyrin IX. Mutations in this gene cause variegate porphyria, an autosomal dominant disorder of heme metabolism resulting from a deficiency in protoporphyrinogen oxidase, an enzyme located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PPOX Gene

PPOX (Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PPOX include Porphyria Variegata and Porphyria. Among its related pathways are Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include oxidoreductase activity and oxygen-dependent protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPOX Gene

  • Catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to form protoporphyrin-IX.

Gene Wiki entry for PPOX Gene

Additional gene information for PPOX Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PPOX Gene

Genomics for PPOX Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PPOX Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PPOX Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01I161164 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +0.1 127 3.6 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B NEUROD1 SIN3A ZNF2 PPOX B4GALT3 NDUFS2 USP21
GH01I161096 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 88.2 -68.1 -68050 2.9 YBX1 FEZF1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF548 MCM3 KLHDC9 USP21 DUSP12 PPOX LOC100287049 DEDD NCSTN RPSAP18 LOC148430 DCAF8
GH01I161130 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 59.9 -33.3 -33347 3.9 FEZF1 DMAP1 YBX1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF416 ZNF143 ZNF548 SP3 DEDD USP21 DUSP12 PPOX LOC100287049 B4GALT3 DCAF8 NCSTN ATF6 LOC148430
GH01I161011 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 41.6 -148.5 -148515 11.7 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 DUSP12 USP21 LOC100287049 DEDD PPOX TSTD1 LOC148430 B4GALT3 ARHGAP30 KLHDC9
GH01I160259 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 31.7 -903.8 -903789 4.1 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZNF610 LOC100287049 DCAF8 GC01P160261 USP21 NCSTN PPOX ENSG00000272668 B4GALT3 RPSAP18 COPA
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PPOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PPOX gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PPOX Gene

Genomic Locations for PPOX Gene
12,550 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PPOX Gene

Genes around PPOX on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PPOX Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PPOX Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PPOX Gene

Proteins for PPOX Gene

  • Protein details for PPOX Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protoporphyrinogen oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • D3DVG0
    • Q5VTW8

    Protein attributes for PPOX Gene

    477 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    50765 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PPOX Gene

neXtProt entry for PPOX Gene

Post-translational modifications for PPOX Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PPOX Gene

Domains & Families for PPOX Gene

Gene Families for PPOX Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for PPOX Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the protoporphyrinogen oxidase family.
  • Belongs to the protoporphyrinogen oxidase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PPOX: view

Function for PPOX Gene

Molecular function for PPOX Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
protoporphyrinogen oxidase,catalyzing protoporphyrin formation,seventh step of porphyrin biosynthesis
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Protoporphyrinogen-IX + 3 O(2) = protoporphyrin-IX + 3 H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to form protoporphyrin-IX.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PPOX Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PPOX Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PPOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004729 oxygen-dependent protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity TAS --
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0050660 flavin adenine dinucleotide binding TAS 7713909
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPOX: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PPOX: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PPOX Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for PPOX Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target PPOX

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PPOX

No data available for Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PPOX Gene

Localization for PPOX Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PPOX Gene

Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Intermembrane side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PPOX gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 3
extracellular 2
nucleus 1
lysosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Mitochondria (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PPOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IEA --
GO:0005758 mitochondrial intermembrane space TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0031304 intrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane ISS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPOX: view

Pathways & Interactions for PPOX Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PPOX: view

Pathways by source for PPOX Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P50336-PPOX_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Porphyrin-containing compound metabolism; protoporphyrin-IX biosynthesis; protoporphyrin-IX from protoporphyrinogen-IX: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PPOX Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006779 porphyrin-containing compound biosynthetic process IEA,IDA 7713909
GO:0006782 protoporphyrinogen IX biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006783 heme biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0042493 response to drug IEA --
GO:0046501 protoporphyrinogen IX metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PPOX: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for PPOX Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PPOX Gene

(11) Drugs for PPOX Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma 0
Hydrogen peroxide Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 73
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
Protoporphyrin IX Experimental Pharma 12

(15) Additional Compounds for PPOX Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Armco iron
  • Carbonyl iron
  • FE
  • Ferrovac e
  • Hematite
  • Formyl coenzyme A
Protoporphyrinogen IX
  • 5,10,15,20,22,24-Hexahydro protoporphyrin IX deriv.
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydroporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoate
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydroporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoic acid
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21h,23h-porphine-2,18-dipropanoate
  • 7,12-Diethenyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21h,23h-porphine-2,18-dipropanoic acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PPOX: view

Transcripts for PPOX Gene

Unigene Clusters for PPOX Gene

Protoporphyrinogen oxidase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PPOX

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PPOX Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10a · 10b · 10c · 10d ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^
SP1: - - - -
SP3: -
SP5: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - -
SP7: - - - -
SP8: -
SP9: - - - -
SP11: -
SP12: - -

ExUns: 15 ^ 16a · 16b

Relevant External Links for PPOX Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PPOX Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PPOX Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PPOX Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasal epithelium (62.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PPOX Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PPOX Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PPOX Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PPOX Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PPOX Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PPOX Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Nervous system(2.9)
  • Liver(2.1)
  • Skin(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PPOX Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • gallbladder
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • stomach
  • rectum
  • blood
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PPOX: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for PPOX Gene

Orthologs for PPOX Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for PPOX Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PPOX 33 34
  • 99.72 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PPOX 33 34
  • 89.45 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PPOX 33 34
  • 88.33 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ppox 33 16 34
  • 85.53 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ppox 33
  • 85.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PPOX 34
  • 79 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PPOX 34
  • 52 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ppox 33
  • 56 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.24954 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ppox 33 34
  • 56.31 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003704 33
  • 47.84 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ppox 33 34
  • 44.93 (n)
protoporphyrinogen-oxidase 35
  • 36 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B11616g 33
  • 41.16 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes HEM14 33 34 36
  • 40.71 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAR021W 33
  • 39.94 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons PPOX 33
  • 43.34 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os01g0286600 33
  • 42.22 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09113 33
  • 42.04 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes hem14 33
  • 41.99 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 39 (a)
CSA.6925 34
  • 34 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PPOX was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PPOX Gene

Gene Tree for PPOX (if available)
Gene Tree for PPOX (if available)

Paralogs for PPOX Gene

No data available for Paralogs for PPOX Gene

Variants for PPOX Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PPOX Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1051807824 uncertain-significance, Variegate porphyria 161,170,508(+) C/G coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1057518798 pathogenic, Abdominal colic, Abnormal blistering of the skin, Porphyrinuria 161,170,939(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, stop_gained
rs114493458 uncertain-significance, Variegate porphyria 161,166,435(+) G/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs115158839 uncertain-significance, Variegate porphyria 161,166,530(+) G/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs121918323 pathogenic, Variegate porphyria, Variegate porphyria (VP) [MIM:176200] 161,169,070(+) G/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Variation tolerance for PPOX Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 38.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.54; 55.70% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PPOX Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PPOX Gene

Disorders for PPOX Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(9) MalaCards diseases for PPOX Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
porphyria variegata
  • variegate porphyria; vp
  • disorder of porphyrin and hem metabolism
porphyria, acute intermittent
  • aip
coproporphyria, hereditary
  • hcp
porphyria cutanea tarda
  • pct
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PPOX in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Variegate porphyria (VP) [MIM:176200]: A form of porphyria. Porphyrias are inherited defects in the biosynthesis of heme, resulting in the accumulation and increased excretion of porphyrins or porphyrin precursors. They are classified as erythropoietic or hepatic, depending on whether the enzyme deficiency occurs in red blood cells or in the liver. Variegate porphyria is the most common form of porphyria in South Africa. It is characterized by skin hyperpigmentation and hypertrichosis, abdominal pain, tachycardia, hypertension and neuromuscular disturbances. High fecal levels of protoporphyrin and coproporphyrin, increased urine uroporphyrins and iron overload are typical markers of the disease. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10486317, ECO:0000269 PubMed:10870850, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11074242, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11102990, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11286631, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11348478, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11350188, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11474578, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12380696, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12655566, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12859407, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12922165, ECO:0000269 PubMed:14669009, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16433813, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16621625, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16922948, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16947091, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18350656, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18570668, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19320019, ECO:0000269 PubMed:21048046, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23430901, ECO:0000269 PubMed:23467411, ECO:0000269 PubMed:24073655, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8673113, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8817334, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8852667, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9541112, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9763307, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9811936}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Mutations leading to severe PPOX deficiency cause the rare homozygous variant form of VP. Missense mutations that preserve 10%-25% of wild-type activity may not cause clinically overt VP in heterozygotes (PubMed:9811936). Mutations with intermediate effect on catalytic activity may cause VP, but with a low clinical penetrance (PubMed:10486317). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:10486317, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9811936}.

Additional Disease Information for PPOX

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PPOX: view

No data available for Genatlas for PPOX Gene

Publications for PPOX Gene

  1. Mitochondrial targeting of human protoporphyrinogen oxidase. (PMID: 16621625) Davids LM … Meissner PN (Cell biology international 2006) 3 4 22 58
  2. Swiss patients with variegate porphyria have unique mutations. (PMID: 16947091) Schneider-Yin X … Minder EI (Swiss medical weekly 2006) 3 4 22 58
  3. Modulation of penetrance by the wild-type allele in dominantly inherited erythropoietic protoporphyria and acute hepatic porphyrias. (PMID: 14669009) Gouya L … Deybach JC (Human genetics 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. Kinetic and physical characterisation of recombinant wild-type and mutant human protoporphyrinogen oxidases. (PMID: 12922165) Maneli MH … Meissner PN (Biochimica et biophysica acta 2003) 3 4 22 58
  5. Homozygous variegate porphyria: 20 y follow-up and characterization of molecular defect. (PMID: 11286631) Kauppinen R … Mustajoki P (The Journal of investigative dermatology 2001) 3 4 22 58

Products for PPOX Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PPOX

Sources for PPOX Gene

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