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Aliases for GNG2 Gene

Aliases for GNG2 Gene

  • G Protein Subunit Gamma 2 2 3 5
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), Gamma 2 2 3
  • G Gamma-I 3 4
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) Subunit Gamma-2 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein G(I)/G(O) Gamma-2 Subunit 3
  • Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein Gamma 2 3

External Ids for GNG2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNG2 Gene

  • GC14P049702
  • GC14M046231
  • GC14M050426
  • GC14P050303
  • GC14P051383
  • GC14P052327
  • GC14P032487
  • GC14P052292

Summaries for GNG2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNG2 Gene

  • This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GNG2 Gene

GNG2 (G Protein Subunit Gamma 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNG2 include Hemiplegic Migraine. Among its related pathways are Akt Signaling and Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity and G-protein beta-subunit binding. An important paralog of this gene is GNG4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).

Tocris Summary for GNG2 Gene

  • Heterotrimeric G proteins are membrane bound GTPases that are linked to 7-TM receptors. Each G protein contains an alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunit and is bound to GDP in the 'off' state. Ligand binding causes a receptor conformational change, detaching the G protein and switching it 'on'.

Gene Wiki entry for GNG2 Gene

Additional gene information for GNG2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNG2 Gene

Genomics for GNG2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNG2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNG2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14J051859 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 692.4 +36.3 36281 5.8 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 RB1 MZF1 STAT5A IRF4 RAD21 ZNF335 ZNF366 GNG2 RTRAF PTGER2 LOC102723604
GH14J051843 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 672.6 +20.6 20636 5.7 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 SIN3A BMI1 BATF KLF5 IRF4 ZNF207 ZNF143 GNG2 RTRAF PTGDR PTGER2 LOC102723604
GH14J051880 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 660.8 +54.9 54917 1.2 IKZF1 NBN MZF1 MLLT1 IKZF2 RUNX3 SPI1 GNG2 RTRAF LOC102723604
GH14J051871 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 26 +46.8 46788 2.5 BMI1 BATF IRF4 ZNF366 SCRT2 ATF7 FOS ETV6 BCLAF1 IKZF2 GNG2 RTRAF PTGER2 PTGDR LOC102723604
GH14J051905 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 27.7 +79.6 79618 1.5 JUN STAT5A BATF KLF5 RELA EED ZNF143 ATF7 FOS ETV6 GNG2 RTRAF RNU6-301P PTGER2 LOC102723604
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for GNG2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNG2 Gene
153,148 bases
Plus strand
153,148 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNG2 Gene

Genes around GNG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNG2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNG2 Gene

Proteins for GNG2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNG2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q5JPE2
    • Q6P9A9

    Protein attributes for GNG2 Gene

    71 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    7850 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with ARHGEF5 (PubMed:19713215).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GNG2 Gene

neXtProt entry for GNG2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNG2 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=32
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNG2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNG2 Gene

Gene Families for GNG2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for GNG2 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNG2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
  • Belongs to the G protein gamma family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNG2: view

Function for GNG2 Gene

Molecular function for GNG2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GNG2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23739333
GO:0031681 G-protein beta-subunit binding IPI 12606627
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNG2: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG2

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNG2 Gene

Localization for GNG2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNG2 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytosol 3
golgi apparatus 2
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005834 heterotrimeric G-protein complex ISS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0016020 membrane ISS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view

Pathways & Interactions for GNG2 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Development Angiotensin activation of ERK
2 ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12
3 fMLP Pathway
4 G-Beta Gamma Signaling
5 Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNG2: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GNG2 Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006457 protein folding TAS --
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007191 adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway ISS --
GO:0007223 Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNG2: view

Drugs & Compounds for GNG2 Gene

(4) Drugs for GNG2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Halothane Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Inhibitor, Activator, Target, other/unknown 2
Guanosine diphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine monophosphate Experimental Pharma 0
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0

(6) Additional Compounds for GNG2 Gene - From: HMDB and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
trifluoroacetic acid
  • Acide trifluoroacetique
  • Perfluoroacetic acid
  • Trifluoressigsaeure
  • Trifluoroacetate
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P
G-Protein antagonist peptide
Gue 1654

(5) Tocris Compounds for GNG2 Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
[D-Trp7,9,10]-Substance P Inhibits M1 ACh receptor activation of Gq/11 89430-38-6
G-Protein antagonist peptide Inhibits G protein activation by GPCRs 143675-79-0
Gue 1654 Selective inhibitor of OXE-R Gbetagamma signaling 397290-30-1
Mastoparan Activates Gi and Go 72093-21-1
SCH 202676 hydrobromide Inhibitor of ligand binding to G-protein-coupled receptors 265980-25-4
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNG2: view

Transcripts for GNG2 Gene

Unigene Clusters for GNG2 Gene

Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for GNG2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNG2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6a · 6b ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b · 11c
SP1: - - - - - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - - -
SP7: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP8: - - - - -
SP9: -

Relevant External Links for GNG2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNG2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNG2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x10.0) and Testis (x8.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GNG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (11.2), Frontal cortex (10.8), Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (7.4), and Fetal Brain (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for GNG2 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GNG2 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNG2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNG2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNG2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in fetal tissues, including testis, adrenal gland, brain, white blood cells and brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNG2 Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Lymph node(4.3)
  • Skin(4.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNG2: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNG2 Gene

Orthologs for GNG2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GNG2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNG2 34 33
  • 100 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GNG2 34
  • 99 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNG2 34 33
  • 95.31 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gng2 16 34 33
  • 92.49 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GNG2 34 33
  • 92.02 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gng2 33
  • 91.55 (n)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GNG2 34 33
  • 85.92 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GNG2 34
  • 99 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gng2 33
  • 85.45 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gng2 34 34
  • 94 (a)
LOC100332296 33
  • 82.63 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GNG2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GNG2 Gene

Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNG2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNG2: view image

Paralogs for GNG2 Gene

Paralogs for GNG2 Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for GNG2 Gene using alignment to 6 proteins:

  • G3V2C9_HUMAN
  • G3V2N0_HUMAN
  • G3V2W5_HUMAN
  • G3V3J9_HUMAN
  • G3V415_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GNG2: view

Variants for GNG2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNG2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000025234 -- 51,869,528(+) G/C intron_variant
rs1000068383 -- 51,884,711(+) T/A intron_variant
rs1000082234 -- 51,903,936(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000082809 -- 51,863,705(+) CC/C intron_variant
rs1000085235 -- 51,911,493(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNG2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv35n6 CNV deletion 16902084
esv1005848 CNV deletion 20482838
esv2000663 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2514556 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2571786 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2670027 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2672618 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2675664 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2748712 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748713 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2748714 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3347905 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3551556 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3551557 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3581204 CNV loss 25503493
esv3581206 CNV loss 25503493
esv3581207 CNV loss 25503493
esv3584437 CNV gain 25503493
esv3634507 CNV loss 21293372
esv3634509 CNV loss 21293372
esv3634510 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1108899 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1116026 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1122901 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1122902 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1138300 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv456317 CNV loss 19166990
nsv564842 CNV loss 21841781
nsv7252 OTHER inversion 18451855
nsv826952 CNV loss 20364138
nsv952840 CNV duplication 24416366
nsv952841 CNV duplication 24416366

Variation tolerance for GNG2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.97; 19.93% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNG2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNG2 Gene

Disorders for GNG2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GNG2 Gene - From: GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hemiplegic migraine
  • migraine hemiplegic
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNG2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GNG2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNG2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNG2 Gene

Publications for GNG2 Gene

  1. Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit. (PMID: 10833460) Modarressi MH … Wolfe J (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Variation at the NFATC2 locus increases the risk of thiazolidinedione-induced edema in the Diabetes REduction Assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone Medication (DREAM) study. (PMID: 20628086) Bailey SD … DREAM investigators (Diabetes care 2010) 3 44 58
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  4. Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks. (PMID: 28514442) Huttlin EL … Harper JW (Nature 2017) 3 58
  5. The role of the IL-8 signaling pathway in the infiltration of granulocytes into the livers of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. (PMID: 28818508) French SW … French BA (Experimental and molecular pathology 2017) 3 58

Products for GNG2 Gene

Sources for GNG2 Gene

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