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Aliases for PLAU Gene

Aliases for PLAU Gene

  • Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase 2 3 5
  • U-Plasminogen Activator 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • UPA 3 4
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator 3
  • Plasminogen Activator, Urinary 3
  • EC 3.4.21 56
  • BDPLT5 3
  • U-PA 3
  • ATF 3
  • QPD 3
  • URK 3

External Ids for PLAU Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PLAU Gene

  • GC10P074625
  • GC10P074774
  • GC10P075561
  • GC10P075015
  • GC10P075340
  • GC10P075668
  • GC10P069666

Summaries for PLAU Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PLAU Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted serine protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate A and B polypeptide chains. These chains associate via a single disulfide bond to form the catalytically inactive high molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (HMW-uPA). HMW-uPA can be further processed into the catalytically active low molecular weight urokinase-type plasminogen activator (LMW-uPA). This low molecular weight form does not bind to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Quebec platelet disorder and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

GeneCards Summary for PLAU Gene

PLAU (Plasminogen Activator, Urokinase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PLAU include Quebec Platelet Disorder and Alzheimer Disease. Among its related pathways are Complement and coagulation cascades and DNA Damage Response (only ATM dependent). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity. An important paralog of this gene is PLAT.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLAU Gene

  • Specifically cleaves the zymogen plasminogen to form the active enzyme plasmin.

Tocris Summary for PLAU Gene

Gene Wiki entry for PLAU Gene

Additional gene information for PLAU Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PLAU Gene

Genomics for PLAU Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PLAU Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PLAU Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10I073905 Promoter/Enhancer 2.8 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 550.8 +1.4 1449 10.8 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT SIN3A ZNF766 ZNF143 FOS KLF13 SP3 JUNB PLAU CAMK2G ENSG00000229990 VCL FUT11 NDST2 SEC24C CFAP70 ZSWIM8-AS1 NUDT13
GH10I073964 Enhancer 2.1 VISTA FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.3 +58.0 58022 6.2 PKNOX1 SIN3A FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF213 FOS SP3 REST ZNF592 ZNF610 GLUD1P3 RPL17P50 DUSP8P5 DNAJC9 ADK AP3M1 VCL ENSG00000272140 PLAU ECD
GH10I074149 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 +242.0 242040 3.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 ADK AP3M1 EIF4A2P2 SEC24C ENSG00000272140 NDST2 ZSWIM8 GLUD1P3 DUSP8P5 BMS1P4
GH10I073109 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.3 -798.1 -798120 2.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 NUDT13 ZSWIM8 NDST2 DNAJB12 SEC24C ZSWIM8-AS1 CFAP70 DNAJC9 ECD ENSG00000272140
GH10I073166 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.3 -741.2 -741173 2.4 PKNOX1 SMAD1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 ECD FAM149B1 NUDT13 NDST2 AP3M1 VCL ZSWIM8 DNAJB12 SEC24C PLAU
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around PLAU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PLAU gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for PLAU Gene

Genomic Locations for PLAU Gene
8,325 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PLAU Gene

Genes around PLAU on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PLAU Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PLAU Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PLAU Gene

Proteins for PLAU Gene

  • Protein details for PLAU Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DPZ2
    • Q15844
    • Q16618
    • Q53XS3
    • Q5SWW9
    • Q969W6

    Protein attributes for PLAU Gene

    431 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    48507 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Found in high and low molecular mass forms. Each consists of two chains, A and B. The high molecular mass form contains a long chain A which is cleaved to yield a short chain A. Forms heterodimer with SERPINA5. Binds LRP1B; binding is followed by internalization and degradation. Interacts with MRC2. Interacts with PLAUR.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for PLAU Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for PLAU Gene


neXtProt entry for PLAU Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for PLAU Gene


Post-translational modifications for PLAU Gene

  • Phosphorylation of Ser-158 and Ser-323 abolishes proadhesive ability but does not interfere with receptor binding.
  • Glycosylation at isoforms=238, isoforms=2158, and Asn322
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for PLAU Gene

Protein Products

Domains & Families for PLAU Gene

Gene Families for PLAU Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PLAU Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PLAU: view

Function for PLAU Gene

Molecular function for PLAU Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
plasminogen activator,urokinase serine protease,involved in plasminogen activation to plasmin
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Specific cleavage of Arg- -Val bond in plasminogen to form plasmin.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by SERPINA5.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Specifically cleaves the zymogen plasminogen to form the active enzyme plasmin.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for PLAU Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PLAU Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PLAU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity TAS,IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 3501295
GO:0008233 peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0008236 serine-type peptidase activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLAU: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PLAU: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for PLAU Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for PLAU Gene

MGI Knock Outs for PLAU:

Transcription Factor Targets for PLAU Gene

Selected GeneGlobe predicted Target genes for PLAU

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PLAU

No data available for HOMER Transcription for PLAU Gene

Localization for PLAU Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLAU Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PLAU gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PLAU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA 18835034
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005925 focal adhesion HDA,IDA 21423176
GO:0009986 cell surface IDA 18835034
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLAU: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for PLAU Gene

Pathways & Interactions for PLAU Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with PLAU: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for PLAU Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PLAU Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis TAS,IEA 6589620
GO:0006935 chemotaxis TAS 10749881
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 10749881
GO:0007596 blood coagulation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PLAU: view

Drugs & Compounds for PLAU Gene

(118) Drugs for PLAU Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Amiloride Approved Pharma Channel blocker, Target, inhibitor 55
Urokinase Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn Pharma Target, activator 0
4-Iodobenzo[B]Thiophene-2-Carboxamidine Experimental Pharma Target 0
benzamidine Experimental Pharma Target 0
(2R)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine Experimental Pharma Target 0

(71) Additional Compounds for PLAU Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(2) Tocris Compounds for PLAU Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-Chlorophenylguanidine hydrochloride Urokinase inhibitor 14279-91-5
BC 11 hydrobromide Selective urokinase (uPA) inhibitor 443776-49-6

(4) ApexBio Compounds for PLAU Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
4-Chlorophenylguanidine hydrochloride Urokinase inhibitor, potent and specific 14279-91-5
BC 11 hydrobromide Selective urokinase inhibitor 443776-49-6
GGACK Dihydrochloride Urokinase/VIIa/Ixa/Xa/trypsin inhibitor
Tiplaxtinin(PAI-039) Orally efficacious inhibitor of PAI-1 393105-53-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with PLAU: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for PLAU Gene

Unigene Clusters for PLAU Gene

Plasminogen activator, urokinase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for PLAU

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PLAU Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for PLAU Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PLAU Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PLAU Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for PLAU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adipose - Visceral (Omentum) (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PLAU Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (59.7) and Amniocyte (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for PLAU Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PLAU Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PLAU Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PLAU Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PLAU Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the prostate gland and prostate cancers.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PLAU Gene

  • Lung(4.8)
  • Kidney(4.6)
  • Nervous system(3.8)
  • Pancreas(3.4)
  • Skin(2.9)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Blood(2.4)
  • Lymph node(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.1)
  • Bone marrow(2)
  • Stomach(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PLAU Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • integumentary
  • reproductive
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • face
  • head
  • nose
  • kidney
  • uterus
  • ankle
  • digit
  • elbow
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • hip
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • shoulder
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PLAU: view

Orthologs for PLAU Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for PLAU Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PLAU 34 33
  • 99.15 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PLAU 34 33
  • 84.66 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PLAU 34 33
  • 82.93 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Plau 33
  • 78.26 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Plau 34 16 33
  • 77.75 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PLAU 34
  • 56 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PLAU 34
  • 52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PLAU 34 33
  • 56.8 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PLAU 34
  • 44 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii plaua 34 33
  • 51.2 (n)
plaub 34
  • 36 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11836 35
  • 37 (a)
CG6041 35
  • 37 (a)
Species where no ortholog for PLAU was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PLAU Gene

Gene Tree for PLAU (if available)
Gene Tree for PLAU (if available)

Paralogs for PLAU Gene

Variants for PLAU Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PLAU Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1006081549 uncertain-significance, Quebec platelet disorder 73,917,196(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1030117500 uncertain-significance, Quebec platelet disorder 73,917,253(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1057481305 uncertain-significance, Quebec platelet disorder 73,917,465(+) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs117134857 benign, Quebec platelet disorder 73,917,085(+) G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs140559980 likely-benign, Quebec platelet disorder 73,916,920(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PLAU Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv46n21 CNV loss 19592680
nsv1035390 CNV loss 25217958
nsv521018 CNV gain 19592680
nsv825468 CNV gain 20364138

Variation tolerance for PLAU Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.53; 44.14% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PLAU Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PLAU Gene

Disorders for PLAU Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(32) MalaCards diseases for PLAU Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PLAU in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) [MIM:601709]: An autosomal dominant bleeding disorder due to a gain-of-function defect in fibrinolysis. Although affected individuals do not exhibit systemic fibrinolysis, they show delayed onset bleeding after challenge, such as surgery. The hallmark of the disorder is markedly increased PLAU levels within platelets, which causes intraplatelet plasmin generation and secondary degradation of alpha-granule proteins. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:20007542}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for PLAU

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PLAU: view

No data available for Genatlas for PLAU Gene

Publications for PLAU Gene

  1. Persons with Quebec platelet disorder have a tandem duplication of PLAU, the urokinase plasminogen activator gene. (PMID: 20007542) Paterson AD … Hayward CP (Blood 2010) 3 4 44 58
  2. Gene polymorphisms of fibrinolytic enzymes in coal workers' pneumoconiosis. (PMID: 17649957) Chang LC … Wu HP (Archives of environmental & occupational health 2006) 3 22 44 58
  3. A functional polymorphism within plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) is associated with Alzheimer's disease. (PMID: 16825285) Riemenschneider M … Kurz A (Human molecular genetics 2006) 3 22 44 58
  4. (4-aminomethyl)phenylguanidine derivatives as nonpeptidic highly selective inhibitors of human urokinase. (PMID: 10805774) Sperl S … Moroder L (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000) 3 4 22 58
  5. Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for human preprourokinase. (PMID: 2415429) Nagai M … Suyama T (Gene 1985) 2 3 4 58

Products for PLAU Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for PLAU

Sources for PLAU Gene