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Aliases for MRPS16 Gene

Aliases for MRPS16 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S16 2 3 5
  • Mitochondrial Small Ribosomal Subunit Protein BS16m 3 4
  • MRP-S16 3 4
  • RPMS16 3 4
  • S16mt 3 4
  • 28S Ribosomal Protein S16, Mitochondrial 3
  • CGI-132 3
  • COXPD2 3

External Ids for MRPS16 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPS16 Gene

  • GC10M073787
  • GC10M074105
  • GC10M074900
  • GC10M074347
  • GC10M074353
  • GC10M074672
  • GC10M074680
  • GC10M075008
  • GC10M069002

Summaries for MRPS16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPS16 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S16P family. The encoded protein is one of the most highly conserved ribosomal proteins between mammalian and yeast mitochondria. Three pseudogenes (located at 8q21.3, 20q13.32, 22q12-q13.1) for this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPS16 Gene

MRPS16 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MRPS16 include Combined Oxidative Phosphorylation Deficiency 2. Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPS16 Gene

Additional gene information for MRPS16 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPS16 Gene

Genomics for MRPS16 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRPS16 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRPS16 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10J073250 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +0.4 359 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 FOXA2 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ENSG00000227540 MRPS16 DNAJB12 NDST2 ZSWIM8 SEC24C AP3M1 ECD NUDT13 ENSG00000272140
GH10J073758 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 5.2 -507.4 -507366 3.6 HDGF PKNOX1 EBF1 BATF ETV6 IKZF2 CREM RUNX3 ZNF687 NR2F1 NDST2 ENSG00000224195 CAMK2G MRPS16 GC10P073762 GC10M073741 SEC24C
GH10J073229 Enhancer 0.3 Ensembl 11.1 +22.7 22692 0.4 SCRT2 ENSG00000227540 MRPS16 NUDT13 RNU6-883P USP54 LOC105378358 DNAJC9 EIF4A2P2 FAM149B1
GH10J073243 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 0.4 +6.5 6460 5.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 DNAJC9 DNAJC9-AS1 SEC24C NDST2 ZSWIM8 NUDT13 DNAJB12 GLUD1P3 ZSWIM8-AS1 ENSG00000272140
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MRPS16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPS16 gene promoter:
  • SRF (504 AA)
  • SRF
  • CUTL1
  • Nkx2-5
  • Arnt
  • AhR
  • AML1a
  • STAT5A
  • NRF-2
  • AREB6

Genomic Locations for MRPS16 Gene

Genomic Locations for MRPS16 Gene
3,851 bases
Minus strand
5,942 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPS16 Gene

Genes around MRPS16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPS16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPS16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPS16 Gene

Proteins for MRPS16 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPS16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    28S ribosomal protein S16, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4E032
    • Q96Q60

    Protein attributes for MRPS16 Gene

    137 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    15345 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit (mt-SSU). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins. bS16m has a zinc binding site.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPS16 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MRPS16 Gene


neXtProt entry for MRPS16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPS16 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at isoforms=264
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MRPS16 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPS16 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPS16 Gene

Gene Families for MRPS16 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Ribosomal proteins

Protein Domains for MRPS16 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bS16 family.
  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bS16 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPS16: view

Function for MRPS16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPS16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome NAS 11279123
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19945174
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS16: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPS16: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MRPS16 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for MRPS16 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPS16

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MRPS16

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPS16 Gene

Localization for MRPS16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPS16 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPS16 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
peroxisome 2
extracellular 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (3)
  • Cytosol (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPS16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005622 intracellular IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA,IEA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005763 mitochondrial small ribosomal subunit IDA 11279123
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS16: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPS16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPS16: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPS16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA,NAS 11279123
GO:0032543 mitochondrial translation ISS,IBA 11402041
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPS16: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPS16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPS16 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for MRPS16 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPS16 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPS16 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for MRPS16

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPS16 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c · 1d ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4a · 4b · 4c ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP6: - -

Relevant External Links for MRPS16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPS16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRPS16 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPS16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Lung (31.4) and Bone (6.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPS16 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPS16 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPS16 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPS16 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPS16 Gene

  • Muscle(4.3)
  • Nervous system(3.7)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPS16 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • face
  • head
  • neck
  • outer ear
  • skull
  • heart
  • liver
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPS16: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MRPS16 Gene

Orthologs for MRPS16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for MRPS16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPS16 34 33
  • 99.76 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPS16 34 33
  • 90.73 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPS16 33
  • 89.63 (n)
-- 34
  • 62 (a)
-- 34
  • 60 (a)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrps16 16 34 33
  • 84.69 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrps16 33
  • 83.95 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPS16 34
  • 73 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPS16 34
  • 70 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MRPS16 33
  • 64.38 (n)
-- 34
  • 63 (a)
-- 34
  • 63 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrps16 33
  • 64.67 (n)
Str.11277 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrps16 34 33
  • 63.98 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.8880 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpS16 34 33
  • 55.96 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004818 33
  • 55.44 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrps-16 34 33
  • 48.51 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes MRPS16 36 34
  • 33 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7275 34
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MRPS16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPS16 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPS16 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPS16 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MRPS16: view image

Paralogs for MRPS16 Gene Pseudogenes for MRPS16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MRPS16: view

No data available for Paralogs for MRPS16 Gene

Variants for MRPS16 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPS16 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs104894168 pathogenic, Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 2 73,250,935(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, stop_gained
rs111672256 likely-benign, Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 73,252,577(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs112218454 uncertain-significance, Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 73,249,873(-) G/C 3_prime_UTR_variant, intron_variant
rs11538567 likely-benign, Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 73,252,585(-) C/A 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs11594611 uncertain-significance, Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 73,252,035(-) C/A/T intron_variant

Variation tolerance for MRPS16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 60.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.78; 58.10% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRPS16 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPS16 Gene

Disorders for MRPS16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for MRPS16 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 2
  • coxpd2
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards


  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 2 (COXPD2) [MIM:610498]: A mitochondrial disease resulting in fatal neonatal metabolic acidosis with agenesis of the corpus callosum. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:15505824}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for MRPS16

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MRPS16: view

No data available for Genatlas for MRPS16 Gene

Publications for MRPS16 Gene

  1. Identification of novel human genes evolutionarily conserved in Caenorhabditis elegans by comparative proteomics. (PMID: 10810093) Lai CH … Lin W (Genome research 2000) 2 3 4 58
  2. Ribosome. The structure of the human mitochondrial ribosome. (PMID: 25838379) Amunts A … Ramakrishnan V (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2015) 3 4 58
  3. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58
  4. The effect of mutated mitochondrial ribosomal proteins S16 and S22 on the assembly of the small and large ribosomal subunits in human mitochondria. (PMID: 18539099) Emdadul Haque M … Saada A (Mitochondrion 2008) 3 22 58
  5. A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease. (PMID: 16385451) Grupe A … Goate A (American journal of human genetics 2006) 3 44 58

Products for MRPS16 Gene

Sources for MRPS16 Gene

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