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Aliases for SOST Gene

Aliases for SOST Gene

  • Sclerostin 2 3 3 5
  • Sclerosteosis 2
  • DAND6 3
  • SOST1 3
  • VBCH 3
  • CDD 3

External Ids for SOST Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SOST Gene

  • GC17M041573
  • GC17M044008
  • GC17M041841
  • GC17M042306
  • GC17M039186
  • GC17M037597

Summaries for SOST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SOST Gene

  • Sclerostin is a secreted glycoprotein with a C-terminal cysteine knot-like (CTCK) domain and sequence similarity to the DAN (differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma) family of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene are associated with an autosomal-recessive disorder, sclerosteosis, which causes progressive bone overgrowth. A deletion downstream of this gene, which causes reduced sclerostin expression, is associated with a milder form of the disorder called van Buchem disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for SOST Gene

SOST (Sclerostin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SOST include Sclerosteosis 1 and Craniodiaphyseal Dysplasia, Autosomal Dominant. Among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Wnt Signaling Pathways: beta-Catenin-dependent Wnt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transcription factor binding and heparin binding. An important paralog of this gene is SOSTDC1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SOST Gene

  • Negative regulator of bone growth that acts through inhibition of Wnt signaling and bone formation.

Gene Wiki entry for SOST Gene

Additional gene information for SOST Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SOST Gene

Genomics for SOST Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SOST Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SOST Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17I043760 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 562.6 -1.7 -1680 0.9 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 IRF4 SLC30A9 ZNF213 ZNF143 SOST DUSP3 GC17M043734
GH17I043758 Promoter 0.9 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -20 0.1 KLF1 L3MBTL2 SP2 ZNF398 MNT ZNF335 EGR1 ZNF692 GLIS1 KLF9 SOST GC17M043734
GH17I043719 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 18.1 +38.1 38066 2.6 HDGF SMAD1 ZFP64 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 ZNF207 ZNF143 JUNB WHSC1L2P TMEM106A SOST MEOX1 LOC105371786 DUSP3 DHX8 TMUB2 GC17P043726 PIR44007
GH17I043524 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 9.8 +230.1 230137 7.7 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 ETV4 RPL29P31 MEOX1 MIR2117HG RNU6-406P MIR2117 SOST GC17P043522 PIR45394 ENSG00000267747
GH17I043659 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 10.5 +97.1 97087 3.8 PKNOX1 ZSCAN4 INSM2 MZF1 FEZF1 BATF IRF4 ZNF335 GLIS2 SCRT2 MEOX1 SOST RNU6-1137P ETV4 MIR2117HG GC17P043657
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around SOST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SOST gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for SOST Gene

Genomic Locations for SOST Gene
5,058 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for SOST Gene

Genes around SOST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SOST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SOST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SOST Gene

Proteins for SOST Gene

  • Protein details for SOST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q495N9

    Protein attributes for SOST Gene

    213 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    24031 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with LRP4 (via the extracellular domain); the interaction facilitates the inhibition of Wnt signaling. Interacts with LRP5 (via the first two YWTD-EGF repeat domains); the interaction inhibits Wnt-mediated signaling. Interacts with LRP6.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SOST Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for SOST Gene


neXtProt entry for SOST Gene

Post-translational modifications for SOST Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=5353 and isoforms=2175

Other Protein References for SOST Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SOST Gene

Domains & Families for SOST Gene

Gene Families for SOST Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SOST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the sclerostin family.
  • Belongs to the sclerostin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SOST: view

Function for SOST Gene

Molecular function for SOST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Negative regulator of bone growth that acts through inhibition of Wnt signaling and bone formation.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SOST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SOST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15908424
GO:0008134 transcription factor binding IDA 17696759
GO:0008201 heparin binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SOST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SOST: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for SOST Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for SOST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SOST:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SOST

miRNA for SOST Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target SOST

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SOST

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SOST Gene

Localization for SOST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SOST Gene

Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SOST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
golgi apparatus 2
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SOST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005578 proteinaceous extracellular matrix IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005794 Golgi apparatus IEA --
GO:0031012 colocalizes_with extracellular matrix IDA 20551380
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SOST: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for SOST Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SOST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SOST: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for SOST Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SOST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001503 ossification IEA --
GO:0009612 response to mechanical stimulus IEP 21723865
GO:0016055 Wnt signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0030279 negative regulation of ossification IEA,NAS 11181578
GO:0030514 negative regulation of BMP signaling pathway IDA 14633986
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SOST: view

Drugs & Compounds for SOST Gene

(6) Drugs for SOST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SOST: view

Transcripts for SOST Gene

mRNA/cDNA for SOST Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(10) Additional mRNA sequences :
(23) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for SOST Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SOST

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SOST Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for SOST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SOST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SOST Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SOST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Artery - Aorta (x27.8), Artery - Tibial (x14.3), and Kidney - Cortex (x5.6).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SOST Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SOST Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SOST Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed at low levels with highest levels in bone, cartilage, kidney, liver, bone marrow and primary osteoblasts differentiated for 21 days. Detected in the subendothelial layer of the aortic intima (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SOST Gene

  • Bone(3.4)
  • Muscle(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SOST Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebrospinal fluid
  • cheek
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • forehead
  • head
  • inner ear
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • meninges
  • middle ear
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • outer ear
  • parathyroid
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tooth
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • biliary tract
  • liver
  • pelvis
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • nail
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SOST: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for SOST Gene

Orthologs for SOST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for SOST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SOST 34 33
  • 99.84 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SOST 34 33
  • 93.74 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SOST 34 33
  • 93.24 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sost 33
  • 89.11 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sost 33 16 34
  • 88.83 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SOST 34
  • 66 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves SOST 34 33
  • 68.97 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SOST 34
  • 52 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sost 34 33
  • 59.22 (n)
Species where no ortholog for SOST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for SOST Gene

Gene Tree for SOST (if available)
Gene Tree for SOST (if available)

Paralogs for SOST Gene

Paralogs for SOST Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for SOST Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SOST: view

Variants for SOST Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SOST Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs104894644 pathogenic, Sclerosteosis 1 43,755,612(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs104894645 pathogenic, Sclerosteosis 1 43,755,608(-) G/A/T coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained, synonymous_variant
rs150640883 uncertain-significance, Sclerosing Bone Dysplasias 43,758,589(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs17881518 likely-benign, Sclerosing Bone Dysplasias 43,754,780(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs17881550 benign, Sclerosing Bone Dysplasias 43,754,076(-) /C 3_prime_UTR_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SOST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3640635 CNV gain 21293372
nsv1060861 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv2060 CNV insertion 18451855

Variation tolerance for SOST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 39.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.39; 8.60% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SOST Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SOST Gene

Disorders for SOST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(16) MalaCards diseases for SOST Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SOST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Craniodiaphyseal dysplasia autosomal dominant (CDD) [MIM:122860]: A severe bone dysplasia characterized by massive generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis, especially involving the skull and facial bones. The sclerosis is so severe that the resulting facial distortion is referred to as leontiasis ossea (leonine faces) and the bone deposition results in progressive stenosis of craniofacial foramina. Respiratory obstruction due to choanal stenosis compromises the clinical outcomes of affected patients. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:21221996}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. Heterozygous mutations located in the secretion signal of the SOST gene prevent sclerostin secretion and can be responsible for craniodiaphyseal dysplasia.
  • Sclerosteosis 1 (SOST1) [MIM:269500]: An autosomal recessive sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by a generalized hyperostosis and sclerosis leading to a markedly thickened skull, with mandible, ribs, clavicles and all long bones also being affected. Due to narrowing of the foramina of the cranial nerves, facial nerve palsy, hearing loss and atrophy of the optic nerves can occur. Sclerosteosis is clinically and radiologically very similar to van Buchem disease, mainly differentiated by hand malformations and a large stature in sclerosteosis patients. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11179006, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11181578, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20583295}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Van Buchem disease (VBCH) [MIM:239100]: VBCH is an autosomal recessive sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by endosteal hyperostosis of the mandible, skull, ribs, clavicles, and diaphyses of the long bones. Affected patients present a symmetrically increased thickness of bones, most frequently found as an enlarged jawbone, but also an enlargement of the skull, ribs, diaphysis of long bones, as well as tubular bones of hands and feet. The clinical consequence of increased thickness of the skull include facial nerve palsy causing hearing loss, visual problems, neurological pain, and, very rarely, blindness as a consequence of optic atrophy. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels are elevated. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11836356}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry. A 52 kb deletion downstream of SOST results in SOST transcription suppression causing van Buchem disease.

Additional Disease Information for SOST

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SOST: view

No data available for Genatlas for SOST Gene

Publications for SOST Gene

  1. Bone dysplasia sclerosteosis results from loss of the SOST gene product, a novel cystine knot-containing protein. (PMID: 11179006) Brunkow ME … Mulligan J (American journal of human genetics 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Increased bone density in sclerosteosis is due to the deficiency of a novel secreted protein (SOST). (PMID: 11181578) Balemans W … Van Hul W (Human molecular genetics 2001) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Characterization of the structural features and interactions of sclerostin: molecular insight into a key regulator of Wnt-mediated bone formation. (PMID: 19208630) Veverka V … Carr MD (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4 22 58
  4. The -9247 T/C polymorphism in the SOST upstream regulatory region that potentially affects C/EBPalpha and FOXA1 binding is associated with osteoporosis. (PMID: 19371798) Huang QY … Kung AW (Bone 2009) 3 22 44 58
  5. Analysis of association of LRP5, LRP6, SOST, DKK1, and CTNNB1 genes with bone mineral density in a Slovenian population. (PMID: 19898734) Mencej-Bedrac S … Marc J (Calcified tissue international 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for SOST Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for SOST

Sources for SOST Gene

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