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Aliases for PALM Gene

Aliases for PALM Gene

  • Paralemmin 2 3 4 5
  • Paralemmin-1 3
  • KIAA0270 4

External Ids for PALM Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for PALM Gene

  • GC19P000760
  • GC19P000648
  • GC19P000660
  • GC19P000659
  • GC19P000489

Summaries for PALM Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for PALM Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the paralemmin protein family. The product of this gene is a prenylated and palmitoylated phosphoprotein that associates with the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes and is implicated in plasma membrane dynamics in neurons and other cell types. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for PALM Gene

PALM (Paralemmin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PALM include Vesicoureteral Reflux 1. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include D3 dopamine receptor binding. An important paralog of this gene is PALM2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

  • Involved in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are necessary for axonal and dendritic filopodia induction, for dendritic spine maturation and synapse formation in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.

Gene Wiki entry for PALM Gene

Additional gene information for PALM Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for PALM Gene

Genomics for PALM Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for PALM Gene

Promoters and enhancers for PALM Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19J000707 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 -0.4 -425 2.6 ZNF48 ZBTB40 SCRT2 SP5 REST GATAD2B ELF1 ZNF148 NFIC RCOR2 PALM MEX3D DAZAP1 MIER2 PRSS57
GH19J000702 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.4 -5.3 -5267 2.5 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A POLR2B ATF7 SP5 NCOA1 KAT8 PALM PRSS57 DAZAP1 MIER2
GH19J000710 Enhancer 0.8 FANTOM5 dbSUPER 658.8 +1.4 1362 0.3 HIC1 KLF1 POLR2A ZNF740 SCRT2 KLF17 ZBTB33 NR2F2 PALM C2CD4C GPX4 GC19M000724
GH19J001019 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.7 +312.3 312268 4.4 MLX ZFP64 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF416 ZNF143 TMEM259 RNU6-2 GC19P001025 DAZAP1 LOC100288123 TCF3 GRIN3B PTBP1 MED16 CIRBP
GH19J001382 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.6 +675.1 675087 2.2 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 PIR60227 PIR43938 TRN-GTT2-6 TRF-GAA1-6 NDUFS7 SF3A2 CIRBP TMEM259 DAZAP1 LOC100288123
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around PALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the PALM gene promoter:
  • ATF
  • STAT3
  • Lmo2
  • USF-1
  • USF-1:USF-2
  • USF1
  • USF2
  • MAZR
  • HEN1

Genomic Locations for PALM Gene

Genomic Locations for PALM Gene
39,392 bases
Plus strand
39,378 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for PALM Gene

Genes around PALM on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
PALM Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for PALM Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for PALM Gene

Proteins for PALM Gene

  • Protein details for PALM Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • O43359
    • O95673
    • Q92559
    • Q9UPJ4
    • Q9UQS2
    • Q9UQS3

    Protein attributes for PALM Gene

    387 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    42076 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with dopamine receptor DRD3.

    Alternative splice isoforms for PALM Gene


neXtProt entry for PALM Gene

Post-translational modifications for PALM Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for PALM Gene

Domains & Families for PALM Gene

Gene Families for PALM Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for PALM Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for PALM Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the paralemmin family.
  • Belongs to the paralemmin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with PALM: view

Function for PALM Gene

Molecular function for PALM Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are necessary for axonal and dendritic filopodia induction, for dendritic spine maturation and synapse formation in a palmitoylation-dependent manner.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
paralemmin,constituent of brain synaptic plasma membranes,also expressed in the kidney,adrenal medulla and at low level in many tissues

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for PALM Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16386234
GO:0031750 D3 dopamine receptor binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with PALM: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for PALM Gene

Localization for PALM Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

Cell membrane; Lipid-anchor; Cytoplasmic side. Cell projection, filopodium membrane; Lipid-anchor. Cell projection, axon. Cell projection, dendrite. Cell projection, dendritic spine. Basolateral cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Apicolateral cell membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=Translocation to the plasma membrane is enhanced upon stimulation of neuronal activity.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for PALM gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Plasma membrane (4)
  • Nucleus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane IDA 16386234
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 9813098
GO:0014069 postsynaptic density IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view

Pathways & Interactions for PALM Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for PALM Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0007193 adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0007194 negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IDA 16386234
GO:0008104 protein localization IEA --
GO:0008360 regulation of cell shape IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with PALM: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for PALM Gene

Drugs & Compounds for PALM Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for PALM Gene

Unigene Clusters for PALM Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for PALM Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b · 12c · 12d
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: -
SP4: -
SP7: - -

Relevant External Links for PALM Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for PALM Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for PALM Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for PALM Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (32.9) and Frontal cortex (11.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for PALM Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for PALM Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of PALM Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for PALM Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for PALM Gene:

Tissue specificity: Widely expressed with highest expression in brain and testis and intermediate expression in heart and adrenal gland.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for PALM Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with PALM: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for PALM Gene

Orthologs for PALM Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for PALM Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia PALM 34 33
  • 97.14 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia PALM 34 33
  • 85.15 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia PALM 34 33
  • 83.9 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Palm 16 34 33
  • 80.16 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Palm 33
  • 79.37 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia PALM 34
  • 69 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia PALM 34
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PALM 34 33
  • 70.79 (n)
-- 34
  • 61 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia PALM 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia palm 33
  • 59.63 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii palm1a 34 33
  • 66.67 (n)
palm1b 34
  • 51 (a)
zgc63523 33
Species where no ortholog for PALM was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for PALM Gene

Gene Tree for PALM (if available)
Gene Tree for PALM (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for PALM: view image

Paralogs for PALM Gene

Paralogs for PALM Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for PALM Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with PALM: view

Variants for PALM Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for PALM Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000026709 -- 710,242(+) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000083541 -- 745,294(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000131498 -- 711,414(+) G/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000133440 -- 740,696(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000157380 -- 728,142(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for PALM Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv134n111 CNV deletion 26073780
dgv1677n106 CNV deletion 24896259
dgv485e201 CNV deletion 23290073
esv1010920 CNV deletion 20482838
esv1111384 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2717771 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717772 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717774 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717775 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717776 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717777 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717778 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717779 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2717780 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3643362 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643363 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643364 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643365 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643366 CNV gain 21293372
esv3643368 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893155 CNV gain 25118596
nsv1071883 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1072832 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1121960 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1142248 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv458320 CNV loss 19166990
nsv470101 CNV loss 18288195
nsv577978 CNV gain 21841781
nsv578165 CNV loss 21841781
nsv578166 CNV loss 21841781
nsv953938 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for PALM Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 69% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.66; 31.75% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for PALM Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for PALM Gene

Disorders for PALM Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for PALM Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
vesicoureteral reflux 1
  • vur1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search PALM in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for PALM

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with PALM: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for PALM Gene

Publications for PALM Gene

  1. Paralemmin, a prenyl-palmitoyl-anchored phosphoprotein abundant in neurons and implicated in plasma membrane dynamics and cell process formation. (PMID: 9813098) Kutzleb C … Kilimann MW (The Journal of cell biology 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Structure of the human paralemmin gene (PALM), mapping to human chromosome 19p13.3 and mouse chromosome 10, and exclusion of coding mutations in grizzled, mocha, jittery, and hesitant mice. (PMID: 9615234) Burwinkel B … Kilimann MW (Genomics 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Paralemmin interacts with D3 dopamine receptors: implications for membrane localization and cAMP signaling. (PMID: 16386234) Basile M … Kester M (Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2006) 3 4 22 58
  4. Regulation of dendritic branching and filopodia formation in hippocampal neurons by specific acylated protein motifs. (PMID: 14978216) Gauthier-Campbell C … El-Husseini Ael-D (Molecular biology of the cell 2004) 3 4 22 58
  5. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PMID: 15057824) Grimwood J … Lucas SM (Nature 2004) 3 4 58

Products for PALM Gene

Sources for PALM Gene

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