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Aliases for FURIN Gene

Aliases for FURIN Gene

  • Furin, Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme 2 3 5
  • Paired Basic Amino Acid Residue-Cleaving Enzyme 3 4
  • EC 4 56
  • PCSK3 3 4
  • PACE 3 4
  • FUR 3 4
  • Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme (Furin, Membrane Associated Receptor Protein) 2
  • Furin (Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) 2
  • Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 3 3
  • Furin, Membrane Associated Receptor Protein 3
  • Dibasic Processing Enzyme 3
  • Dibasic-Processing Enzyme 4
  • FURIN/ADAMTS1 Fusion 3
  • FES Upstream Region 3
  • EC 3.4.21 56
  • Furin 3
  • SPC1 3

External Ids for FURIN Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for FURIN Gene

  • PCSK3
  • FUR
  • PACE

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for FURIN Gene

  • GC15P084851
  • GC15P088999
  • GC15P089141
  • GC15P089212
  • GC15P091411
  • GC15P067523

Summaries for FURIN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for FURIN Gene

  • This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease that is expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER and then sorts to the trans-Golgi network through endosomes where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The product of this gene is one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. Some of its substrates include proparathyroid hormone, transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor, proalbumin, pro-beta-secretase, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, beta subunit of pro-nerve growth factor and von Willebrand factor. It is also thought to be one of the proteases responsible for the activation of HIV envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp140 and may play a role in tumor progression. This gene is located in close proximity to family member proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 and upstream of the FES oncogene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GeneCards Summary for FURIN Gene

FURIN (Furin, Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with FURIN include Avian Influenza and Influenza. Among its related pathways are Development NOTCH1-mediated pathway for NF-KB activity modulation and Metabolism of proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include serine-type endopeptidase activity and serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity. An important paralog of this gene is PCSK4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FURIN Gene

  • Furin is likely to represent the ubiquitous endoprotease activity within constitutive secretory pathways and capable of cleavage at the RX(K/R)R consensus motif.

  • (Microbial infection) Probably cleaves and activates anthrax and diphtheria toxins. Required for H7N1 and H5N1 influenza virus infection probably by cleaving hemagglutinin.

Gene Wiki entry for FURIN Gene

Additional gene information for FURIN Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for FURIN Gene

Genomics for FURIN Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for FURIN Gene

Promoters and enhancers for FURIN Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH15I090867 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 555 +2.8 2769 7 HDGF HNRNPUL1 PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FURIN UNC45A ENSG00000259314 FES LOC100631255 IQGAP1 ENSG00000259212 CRTC3 GC15P090874
GH15I090835 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.8 -29.3 -29268 6.8 HDGF SMAD1 FOXA2 ARNT ZNF766 CBX5 FOS REST ZNF592 MEF2D LOC105370969 UNC45A FES BLM FURIN VPS33B-DT LOC100631255 MAN2A2 HDDC3 ENSG00000259314
GH15I090829 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.5 -38.0 -38016 2.6 HDGF BCOR ZMYM3 EBF1 RELA ZNF316 NFE2 IKZF2 ZNF687 NR2F1 FES UNC45A FURIN VPS33B-DT HDDC3 ENSG00000200677 IQGAP1 LOC105370969 GC15M090794
GH15I090923 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE 12.7 +54.5 54534 0.2 TEAD4 TAL1 ZFP64 BACH1 CEBPG ZBTB40 BATF IRF9 TCF12 ZNF316 ENSG00000259661 MAN2A2 FES FURIN VPS33B-DT BLM ENSG00000200677 CRTC3 UNC45A
GH15I090834 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.6 -33.7 -33714 0.5 BCOR STAT1 SOX6 NR4A1 CEBPB ZEB2 ZNF316 MTA3 CTBP1 IKZF1 FURIN FES VPS33B-DT HDDC3 UNC45A ENSG00000200677 LOC105370969 GC15M090794
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around FURIN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the FURIN gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for FURIN Gene

Genomic Locations for FURIN Gene
14,867 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for FURIN Gene

Genes around FURIN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
FURIN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for FURIN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for FURIN Gene

Proteins for FURIN Gene

  • Protein details for FURIN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14336
    • Q6LBS3
    • Q9UCZ5

    Protein attributes for FURIN Gene

    794 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    86678 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with FLNA (By similarity). Binds to PACS1 which mediates TGN localization and connection to clathrin adapters (PubMed:11331585).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for FURIN Gene

neXtProt entry for FURIN Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for FURIN Gene


Post-translational modifications for FURIN Gene

  • Phosphorylation is required for TGN localization of the endoprotease. In vivo, exists as di-, mono- and non-phosphorylated forms.
  • The inhibition peptide, which plays the role of an intramolecular chaperone, is autocatalytically removed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and remains non-covalently bound to furin as a potent autoinhibitor. Following transport to the trans Golgi, a second cleavage within the inhibition propeptide results in propeptide dissociation and furin activation.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=748748
  • Glycosylation at posLast=387387, isoforms=440, and isoforms=553
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for FURIN Gene

Gene Families for FURIN Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for FURIN Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Contains a cytoplasmic domain responsible for its TGN localization and recycling from the cell surface.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S8 family. Furin subfamily.
  • Contains a cytoplasmic domain responsible for its TGN localization and recycling from the cell surface.
  • Belongs to the peptidase S8 family. Furin subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with FURIN: view

Function for FURIN Gene

Molecular function for FURIN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
pH dependence: Optimum pH is 6.0. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:9130696};
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Release of mature proteins from their proproteins by cleavage of -Arg-Xaa-Yaa-Arg- -Zaa- bonds, where Xaa can be any amino acid and Yaa is Arg or Lys. Releases albumin, complement component C3 and von Willebrand factor from their respective precursors.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot EnzymeRegulation:
Inhibited by the not secondly cleaved propeptide (PubMed:9130696, PubMed:11799113). Inhibited by m-guanidinomethyl-phenylacetyl-Arg-Val-Arg-(amidomethyl)-benzamidine (m-guanidinomethyl-Phac-RVR-Amb) and 4-guanidinomethyl-phenylacteyl-Arg-Tle-Arg-4-amidinobenzylamide (MI-1148) (PubMed:24666235, PubMed:25974265).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Furin is likely to represent the ubiquitous endoprotease activity within constitutive secretory pathways and capable of cleavage at the RX(K/R)R consensus motif.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
(Microbial infection) Probably cleaves and activates anthrax and diphtheria toxins. Required for H7N1 and H5N1 influenza virus infection probably by cleaving hemagglutinin.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for FURIN Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for FURIN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for FURIN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0002020 protease binding IPI 14744861
GO:0004175 endopeptidase activity TAS --
GO:0004252 serine-type endopeptidase activity TAS,IDA --
GO:0004867 serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity IDA 10567353
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 23829672
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FURIN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with FURIN: view

Animal Models for FURIN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for FURIN:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for FURIN Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target FURIN

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FURIN

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for FURIN Gene

Localization for FURIN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FURIN Gene

Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Cell membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Secreted. Endosome membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Note=Shuttles between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface (PubMed:9412467, PubMed:11799113). Propeptide cleavage is a prerequisite for exit of furin molecules out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A second cleavage within the propeptide occurs in the trans Golgi network (TGN), followed by the release of the propeptide and the activation of furin (PubMed:11799113). {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11799113, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9412467}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for FURIN gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
golgi apparatus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
endosome 4
nucleus 3
cytosol 2
lysosome 2
cytoskeleton 1
peroxisome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for FURIN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000139 Golgi membrane TAS --
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 NOT extracellular space IDA 10567353
GO:0005768 endosome IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IGI 17938254
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FURIN: view

Pathways & Interactions for FURIN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with FURIN: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for FURIN Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for FURIN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006465 signal peptide processing TAS,IDA --
GO:0006508 proteolysis IEA --
GO:0007179 transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0008283 cell proliferation IMP 15899807
GO:0009966 regulation of signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with FURIN: view

Drugs & Compounds for FURIN Gene

(28) Drugs for FURIN Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Approved Nutra 0
Pirfenidone Approved, Investigational Pharma Target TGF-β production inhibitor, Antifibrotic agent; regulates cytokine levels in vivo 65
Esbriet Approved October 2014 Pharma 0
Capric acid Experimental Pharma Target 0

(23) Additional Compounds for FURIN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with FURIN: view

Transcripts for FURIN Gene

Unigene Clusters for FURIN Gene

Furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme):
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for FURIN

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for FURIN Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15

Relevant External Links for FURIN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for FURIN Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for FURIN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for FURIN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x7.4) and Whole Blood (x5.2).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for FURIN Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (37.9), Salivary gland (12.3), Skin (8.6), and Placenta (6.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for FURIN Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of FURIN Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for FURIN Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for FURIN Gene:

Tissue specificity: Seems to be expressed ubiquitously.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for FURIN Gene

  • Liver(4.7)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Nervous system(3.1)
  • Kidney(3)
  • Pancreas(2.9)
  • Intestine(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.5)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Skin(2.3)
  • Spleen(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with FURIN: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for FURIN Gene

Orthologs for FURIN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for FURIN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia FURIN 33 34
  • 99.5 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia FURIN 33 34
  • 90.79 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia FURIN 33 34
  • 89.76 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Furin 33
  • 89.28 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Furin 33 16 34
  • 88.52 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia FURIN 34
  • 85 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia FURIN 34
  • 58 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves FURIN 33 34
  • 77.58 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia FURIN 34
  • 69 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia furin 33
  • 67.31 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia LOC397747 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii furina 33 34
  • 66.19 (n)
furinb 34
  • 63 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001330 33
  • 60.01 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea kpc-1 33
  • 56.61 (n)
Species where no ortholog for FURIN was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for FURIN Gene

Gene Tree for FURIN (if available)
Gene Tree for FURIN (if available)

Paralogs for FURIN Gene

Paralogs for FURIN Gene

(6) SIMAP similar genes for FURIN Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with FURIN: view

Variants for FURIN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for FURIN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 15 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000186268 -- 90,880,498(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000289443 -- 90,869,987(+) A/C genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000441776 -- 90,874,538(+) T/A intron_variant
rs1000677492 -- 90,881,233(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000682930 -- 90,874,673(+) A/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for FURIN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv4706n54 CNV gain+loss 21841781
dgv4707n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv4708n54 CNV gain+loss 21841781
dgv4709n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv4710n54 CNV gain+loss 21841781
dgv4711n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv22296 CNV loss 19812545
nsv1144744 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv515661 CNV loss 19592680
nsv570398 CNV loss 21841781
nsv570405 CNV gain 21841781
nsv570426 CNV gain 21841781
nsv570428 CNV loss 21841781
nsv570430 CNV loss 21841781
nsv570431 CNV gain 21841781
nsv570432 CNV gain+loss 21841781
nsv570434 CNV loss 21841781
nsv570436 CNV loss 21841781
nsv833089 CNV loss 17160897
nsv952028 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for FURIN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.07; 50.72% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for FURIN Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for FURIN Gene

Disorders for FURIN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for FURIN Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
avian influenza
  • avian flu
  • flu
  • corynebacterium infection
cerebral amyloid angiopathy, itm2b-related, 1
  • dementia, familial british; fbd
anthrax disease
  • gas gangrene
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search FURIN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for FURIN

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with FURIN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for FURIN Gene

Publications for FURIN Gene

  1. The ordered and compartment-specfific autoproteolytic removal of the furin intramolecular chaperone is required for enzyme activation. (PMID: 11799113) Anderson ED … Thomas G (The Journal of biological chemistry 2002) 3 4 22 58
  2. PACS-1 binding to adaptors is required for acidic cluster motif-mediated protein traffic. (PMID: 11331585) Crump CM … Thomas G (The EMBO journal 2001) 3 4 22 58
  3. Activation of the furin endoprotease is a multiple-step process: requirements for acidification and internal propeptide cleavage. (PMID: 9130696) Anderson ED … Thomas G (The EMBO journal 1997) 3 4 22 58
  4. Intracellular trafficking of furin is modulated by the phosphorylation state of a casein kinase II site in its cytoplasmic tail. (PMID: 8846780) Jones BG … Thomas G (The EMBO journal 1995) 3 4 22 58
  5. Activation of human furin precursor processing endoprotease occurs by an intramolecular autoproteolytic cleavage. (PMID: 1629222) Leduc R … Thomas G (The Journal of biological chemistry 1992) 3 4 22 58

Products for FURIN Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for FURIN

Sources for FURIN Gene

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