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Aliases for MPO Gene

Aliases for MPO Gene

  • Myeloperoxidase 2 3 3 5
  • EC 4

External Ids for MPO Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MPO Gene

  • GC17M056091
  • GC17M058828
  • GC17M056689
  • GC17M056821
  • GC17M053702
  • GC17M056347
  • GC17M051708

Summaries for MPO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MPO Gene

  • Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme protein synthesized during myeloid differentiation that constitutes the major component of neutrophil azurophilic granules. Produced as a single chain precursor, myeloperoxidase is subsequently cleaved into a light and heavy chain. The mature myeloperoxidase is a tetramer composed of 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains. This enzyme produces hypohalous acids central to the microbicidal activity of neutrophils. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GeneCards Summary for MPO Gene

MPO (Myeloperoxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with MPO include Myeloperoxidase Deficiency and Alzheimer Disease. Among its related pathways are Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers and LDL Oxidation in Atherogenesis. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include chromatin binding and heme binding. An important paralog of this gene is EPX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPO Gene

  • Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.

Gene Wiki entry for MPO Gene

Additional gene information for MPO Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MPO Gene

Genomics for MPO Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MPO Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MPO Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J058284 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 661.7 -0.5 -475 1.2 MAX CEBPG IRF9 ZFHX2 POLR2A ATF7 EGR2 CEBPB REST ATF2 MPO TSPOAP1 MKS1 LPO RNF43 SUPT4H1 SRSF1 GC17P058303
GH17J058280 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 +3.4 3358 0.1 POLR2A REST MPO LOC105371841
GH17J058281 Enhancer 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 26.4 +2.5 2513 0.6 POLR2A IKZF1 GABPB1 MAX GABPA MPO TSPOAP1 LOC105371841
GH17J058327 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 3.5 -53.3 -53344 20.8 YBX1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF263 NFYC MEF2D SSRP1 TSPOAP1 MIR4736 SRSF1 MKS1 VEZF1 SUPT4H1 SMG8 TRIM37 DYNLL2 TEX14
GH17J057573 Enhancer 0.6 dbSUPER 4.9 +710.2 710212 1.8 ZBTB6 ZNF189 ZNF2 OSR2 ZNF629 PATZ1 GLIS1 KLF7 PRDM10 MPO LOC101927539 ENSG00000280028 MSI2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MPO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MPO gene promoter:
  • AML1a
  • Sp1
  • Tal-1beta
  • ITF-2
  • NRF-2
  • Msx-1

Genomic Locations for MPO Gene

Genomic Locations for MPO Gene
14,459 bases
Minus strand
11,080 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MPO Gene

Genes around MPO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MPO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MPO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MPO Gene

Proteins for MPO Gene

  • Protein details for MPO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A1L4B8
    • Q14862
    • Q4PJH5
    • Q9UCL7

    Protein attributes for MPO Gene

    745 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    83869 Da
    Name=Ca(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29108;
    Name=heme b; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:60344;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Each monomer consists of a light and a heavy chain.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MPO Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for MPO Gene


neXtProt entry for MPO Gene

Post-translational modifications for MPO Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=2, 3729, isoforms=2, 3483, isoforms=2, 3391, Asn355, isoforms=2, 3323, and Asn139
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • PERM_HUMAN (428)

Other Protein References for MPO Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for MPO (Myeloperoxidase/MPO)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MPO Gene

Domains & Families for MPO Gene

Gene Families for MPO Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for MPO Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the peroxidase family. XPO subfamily.
  • Belongs to the peroxidase family. XPO subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MPO: view

Function for MPO Gene

Molecular function for MPO Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Cl(-) + H(2)O(2) + H(+) = HClO + H(2)O.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
myeloperoxidase,formed by dimerization of hemi-MPO,78kDa,cleaved in an alpha large (59kDa) iron binding subunit and two smaller beta subunits (13kDa),expressed in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and primary liposomes of monocytes,involved in oxygen dependent mechanism of phagocytosis

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for MPO Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MPO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003682 chromatin binding TAS 2829220
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity IEA,IDA 10772654
GO:0008201 heparin binding IDA 11907569
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0020037 heme binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MPO: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for MPO Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for MPO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for MPO:
  • Mpo Mpo<tm1Lus>
  • Mpo Mpo<tm1Mae>

Animal Model Products

miRNA for MPO Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MPO

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MPO

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MPO Gene

Localization for MPO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPO Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MPO gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
lysosome 5
plasma membrane 3
mitochondrion 3
cytoskeleton 2
cytosol 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Vesicles (3)
  • Nucleus (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA,IEA 10772654
GO:0005634 nucleus TAS,IDA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPO: view

Pathways & Interactions for MPO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MPO: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001878 response to yeast IEA --
GO:0002149 hypochlorous acid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0002679 respiratory burst involved in defense response IEA --
GO:0006952 defense response IEA,TAS 8621627
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress IEA,TAS 2903767
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MPO: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MPO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MPO Gene

(103) Drugs for MPO Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Propylthiouracil Approved, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 9
Aminosalicylic Acid Approved Pharma Enzyme, inhibitor 31
Calcipotriol Approved Pharma Agonist, Enzyme, inhibitor Vitamin D3 analog,regulates cell differentiation and proliferation 0
Cefaclor Approved Pharma Enzyme, inducer 5
Cefdinir Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 26

(91) Additional Compounds for MPO Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Cyanosulfoxylate
  • N,6-didehydro-3,6-dihydro-3-Methyl-adenosine
  • OSCN-hypothiocyanite ion
  • Hypothiocyanite ion
  • alpha-Phenylacetamide
  • alpha-Toluamide
  • Benzeneacetamide
  • Phenyl-beta-acetylamine
  • Phenylacetamide
  • Hydroxyticlopidine
  • M1
  • FE (II) ion
  • Fe(II)
  • Fe(2+)
  • Ferrous ion
  • Iron ion(2+)
  • [ClOH]
  • Chlor(I)-saeure
  • HOCl
  • Hypochloric acid
  • Hypochlorige saeure
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MPO: view

Transcripts for MPO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MPO Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(271) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(5) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for MPO Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for MPO

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MPO Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b · 7c ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - -

Relevant External Links for MPO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MPO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MPO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for MPO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x38.6) and Spleen (x4.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MPO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Neutrophil (37.9), Monocytes (10.5), and Nasal epithelium (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for MPO Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MPO Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MPO Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MPO Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MPO Gene

  • Blood(5)
  • Bone marrow(4.8)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Saliva(4.3)
  • Nervous system(4.1)
  • Lung(3.5)
  • Intestine(3.4)
  • Heart(2.9)
  • Kidney(2.6)
  • Skin(2.4)
  • Spleen(2.4)
  • Pancreas(2.2)
  • Lymph node(2.1)
  • Muscle(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MPO Gene

Germ Layers:
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • lymphatic
  • thymus
  • liver
  • spleen
  • blood
  • bone marrow
  • coagulation system
  • red blood cell
  • white blood cell
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MPO: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MPO Gene

Orthologs for MPO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MPO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MPO 34 33
  • 99.46 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MPO 34 33
  • 87.53 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MPO 34 33
  • 87.14 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mpo 16 34 33
  • 85.02 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MPO 34
  • 80 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MPO 34
  • 65 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves MPO 33
  • 64.96 (n)
-- 34
  • 60 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 59 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100496213 33
  • 60.9 (n)
Str.11704 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia mpo-A 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mpx 34
  • 39 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5873 35
  • 34 (a)
CG6969 35
  • 33 (a)
CG10211 35
  • 33 (a)
CG6879 35
  • 32 (a)
pxt 35
  • 29 (a)
CG4009 35
  • 29 (a)
Pxd 34
  • 28 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C46A5.4 35
  • 36 (a)
ZK430.8 35
  • 35 (a)
F09F3.5 35
  • 32 (a)
R08F11.7 35
  • 31 (a)
mlt-7 34
  • 30 (a)
K10B4.1 35
  • 30 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 33 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MPO was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MPO Gene

Gene Tree for MPO (if available)
Gene Tree for MPO (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MPO: view image

Paralogs for MPO Gene

Paralogs for MPO Gene

(5) SIMAP similar genes for MPO Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • Q16771_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with MPO: view

Variants for MPO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MPO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs119468010 pathogenic, not provided, Myeloperoxidase deficiency (MPOD) [MIM:254600] 58,272,835(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs119469012 pathogenic, Myeloperoxidase deficiency 58,272,825(-) A/C/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs119469013 pathogenic, Myeloperoxidase deficiency 58,273,534(-) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs119469014 pathogenic, Myeloperoxidase deficiency 58,273,540(-) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs28730837 pathogenic, Myeloperoxidase deficiency 58,278,036(-) G/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MPO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv2109 CNV deletion 18451855
nsv509663 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv517229 CNV gain+loss 19592680

Variation tolerance for MPO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 57.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.98; 74.76% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MPO Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MPO Gene

Disorders for MPO Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(113) MalaCards diseases for MPO Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
myeloperoxidase deficiency
  • mpod
alzheimer disease
  • ad
churg-strauss syndrome
  • allergic granulomatosis angiitis
myeloid sarcoma
  • chloroma
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
  • crescentic glomerulonephritis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search MPO in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Myeloperoxidase deficiency (MPOD) [MIM:254600]: A disorder characterized by decreased myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils and monocytes that results in disseminated candidiasis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:7904599, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8142659, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8621627, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9354683, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9637725}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Genatlas disease for MPO Gene

infections,recurrent,with disseminated candidiasis

Additional Disease Information for MPO

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with MPO: view

Publications for MPO Gene

  1. Association between myeloperoxidase polymorphisms and its plasma levels with severity of coronary artery disease. (PMID: 19651119) Wainstein RV … Polanczyk CA (Clinical biochemistry 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. No relationship between neutrophil granulocyte activation and the myeloperoxidase gene - 129 G>A and - 463 G>A promoter polymorphisms: implications for investigations of cardiovascular disease. (PMID: 19877306) Videm V … Olsen GD (Coronary artery disease 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. A myeloperoxidase promoter polymorphism is independently associated with mortality in patients with impaired left ventricular function. (PMID: 19735726) Rudolph V … Baldus S (Free radical biology & medicine 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase 2 polymorphisms comodulate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and death in alcoholic cirrhosis. (PMID: 19731237) Nahon P … Beaugrand M (Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 2009) 3 22 44 58
  5. Myeloperoxidase genotypes and enhanced efficacy of chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in SWOG-8897. (PMID: 19752340) Ambrosone CB … Albain KS (Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for MPO Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for MPO

Sources for MPO Gene

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