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Aliases for LYZ Gene

Aliases for LYZ Gene

  • Lysozyme 2 3 5
  • 1,4-Beta-N-Acetylmuramidase C 3 4
  • LZM 3 4
  • Lysozyme (Renal Amyloidosis) 2
  • Renal Amyloidosis 2
  • C-Type Lysozyme 3
  • Lysozyme F1 3
  • EC 4
  • Lysozyme C 3
  • LYZF1 3

External Ids for LYZ Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for LYZ Gene

  • GC12M069521
  • GC12P069681
  • GC12P069458
  • GC12P068028
  • GC12P066791

Summaries for LYZ Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for LYZ Gene

  • This gene encodes human lysozyme, whose natural substrate is the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (cleaving the beta[1-4]glycosidic linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine). Lysozyme is one of the antimicrobial agents found in human milk, and is also present in spleen, lung, kidney, white blood cells, plasma, saliva, and tears. The protein has antibacterial activity against a number of bacterial species. Missense mutations in this gene have been identified in heritable renal amyloidosis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

GeneCards Summary for LYZ Gene

LYZ (Lysozyme) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with LYZ include Amyloidosis, Familial Visceral and Al Amyloidosis. Among its related pathways are C-MYB transcription factor network and Defensins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and lysozyme activity. An important paralog of this gene is LYZL2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LYZ Gene

  • Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents.

Gene Wiki entry for LYZ Gene

Additional gene information for LYZ Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for LYZ Gene

Genomics for LYZ Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for LYZ Gene

Promoters and enhancers for LYZ Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J069348 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 671.5 +0.5 497 1.3 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 NFKBIZ PAF1 RXRA SP5 LYZ YEATS4 LINC01481 ENSG00000257764
GH12J069351 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl dbSUPER 650.7 +2.0 1960 0.6 GATAD2A POLR2A KLF16 ARID4B LYZ YEATS4 ENSG00000257764
GH12J069358 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 52.2 +11.7 11661 2.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YEATS4 LYZ NUP107 CNOT2 KRT8P39 ENSG00000258140 RPL7P42 RAP1B RPL10P12 CPSF6
GH12J069337 Enhancer 1.5 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 61.3 -10.2 -10231 2.2 ELF3 FOXA2 ZSCAN9 RAD21 RARA YY1 EGR1 CREM MIXL1 RXRA LYZ YEATS4 CPM ENSG00000274979
GH12J069328 Promoter/Enhancer 2 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 40.7 -16.8 -16832 6.1 HDGF FOXA2 MLX ARID4B FEZF1 YY1 ZNF766 ZNF548 PAF1 SP5 ENSG00000274979 LYZ NUP107 CNOT2 CPSF6 YEATS4 KRT8P39 LINC01481 CPM GC12M069304
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around LYZ on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the LYZ gene promoter:
  • p53
  • STAT3
  • C/EBPbeta
  • AREB6
  • FOXO1a
  • FOXO1
  • CUTL1
  • Sp1
  • Evi-1

Genomic Locations for LYZ Gene

Genomic Locations for LYZ Gene
5,894 bases
Plus strand
5,894 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for LYZ Gene

Genes around LYZ on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
LYZ Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for LYZ Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for LYZ Gene

Proteins for LYZ Gene

  • Protein details for LYZ Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Lysozyme C
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P00695
    • Q13170
    • Q9UCF8

    Protein attributes for LYZ Gene

    148 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    16537 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.
    • Lysozyme C is capable of both hydrolysis and transglycosylation; it shows also a slight esterase activity. It acts rapidly on both peptide-substituted and unsubstituted peptidoglycan, and slowly on chitin oligosaccharides.
    • Sequence=CAA32175.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for LYZ Gene

neXtProt entry for LYZ Gene

Post-translational modifications for LYZ Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for LYZ Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for LYZ Gene

Domains & Families for LYZ Gene

Gene Families for LYZ Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for LYZ Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 22 family.
  • Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 22 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with LYZ: view

Function for LYZ Gene

Molecular function for LYZ Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Lysozymes have primarily a bacteriolytic function; those in tissues and body fluids are associated with the monocyte-macrophage system and enhance the activity of immunoagents.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in a peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrins.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
lysozyme,14.5kDa,released from azurophilic granules of neutrophils,oxygen independent phagocytosis of Gram- bacteria

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for LYZ Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for LYZ Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for LYZ Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003796 lysozyme activity TAS,IEA 2829884
GO:0003824 catalytic activity IEA --
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0016798 hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds IEA --
GO:0042802 identical protein binding IPI 23353684
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LYZ: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with LYZ: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for LYZ Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for LYZ Gene

MGI Knock Outs for LYZ:
  • Lyz2 Lyz2<tm1.1Graf>
  • Lyz2 Lyz2<tm1Graf>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for LYZ

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for LYZ Gene

Localization for LYZ Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LYZ Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for LYZ gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
lysosome 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
golgi apparatus 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Golgi apparatus (3)
  • Actin filaments (1)
  • Nucleoplasm (1)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for LYZ Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 2829884
GO:0035578 azurophil granule lumen TAS --
GO:0035580 specific granule lumen TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 19056867
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LYZ: view

Pathways & Interactions for LYZ Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with LYZ: view

Pathways by source for LYZ Gene

1 KEGG pathway for LYZ Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for LYZ Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for LYZ Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001895 retina homeostasis HEP 23580065
GO:0006954 inflammatory response TAS 366724
GO:0008152 metabolic process IEA --
GO:0016998 cell wall macromolecule catabolic process IBA --
GO:0019730 antimicrobial humoral response TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with LYZ: view

Drugs & Compounds for LYZ Gene

(18) Drugs for LYZ Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Propyl alcohol Approved, Experimental Pharma Target 0
L-Aspartic acid Approved Nutra Target 0
Furan Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target 0
Rose bengal Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma Enzyme, other VGlut and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) inhibitor, Potent VGlut and VMAT inhibitor; cell permeable 0
N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Approved, Investigational Nutra 0

(1) Additional Compounds for LYZ Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with LYZ: view

Transcripts for LYZ Gene

mRNA/cDNA for LYZ Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(10) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for LYZ Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for LYZ

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for LYZ Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b
SP1: -
SP2: - -

Relevant External Links for LYZ Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for LYZ Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for LYZ Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for LYZ Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x27.8) and Minor Salivary Gland (x14.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for LYZ Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Milk (31.8), Neutrophil (11.0), and Saliva (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for LYZ Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for LYZ Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of LYZ Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for LYZ Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for LYZ Gene

  • Intestine(4.9)
  • Eye(4.8)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Stomach(4.5)
  • Urine(4.4)
  • Bone marrow(4)
  • Lung(4)
  • Lymph node(3.6)
  • Spleen(3.6)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Skin(3.1)
  • Liver(3)
  • Gall bladder(2.8)
  • Heart(2.6)
  • Muscle(2.6)
  • Saliva(2.6)
  • Nervous system(2.4)
  • Bone(2.2)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
  • Pancreas(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for LYZ Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • mouth
  • heart
  • lung
  • abdominal wall
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • kidney
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • spleen
  • ureter
  • urinary bladder
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with LYZ: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for LYZ Gene

Orthologs for LYZ Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for LYZ Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia LYZ 34 33
  • 99.32 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia LYZ 34 33
  • 87.16 (n)
LYZ1 34 34
  • 80 (a)
-- 34
  • 75 (a)
-- 34
  • 73 (a)
-- 34
  • 71 (a)
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 70 (a)
LYZ3 34
  • 70 (a)
LYZ2 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 65 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia LYZ 34 33
  • 83.78 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Lyz2 16 34 33
  • 78.15 (n)
Lyz1 34
  • 76 (a)
9530003J23Rik 34
  • 60 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Lyz2 33
  • 76.35 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia LYZ 34
  • 74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 70 (a)
-- 34
  • 69 (a)
-- 34
  • 66 (a)
-- 34
  • 56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves LYZ 34 33
  • 60.92 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia LYZ 34
  • 49 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100492798 33
  • 61.34 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta LysE 34
  • 41 (a)
CG7798 34
  • 41 (a)
LysB 34
  • 40 (a)
LysD 34
  • 40 (a)
LysS 34
  • 39 (a)
LysC 34
  • 39 (a)
LysP 34
  • 38 (a)
LysX 34
  • 37 (a)
CG16756 34
  • 35 (a)
CG11159 34
  • 32 (a)
CG30062 34
  • 29 (a)
CG16799 34
  • 25 (a)
CG8492 34
  • 4 (a)
Species where no ortholog for LYZ was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for LYZ Gene

Gene Tree for LYZ (if available)
Gene Tree for LYZ (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for LYZ: view image

Paralogs for LYZ Gene

Paralogs for LYZ Gene

(8) SIMAP similar genes for LYZ Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

  • B2R4C5_HUMAN
  • F8VV32_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with LYZ: view

Variants for LYZ Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for LYZ Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1053109461 uncertain-significance, Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type 69,353,784(+) G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs121913547 pathogenic, Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type, Amyloidosis 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200] 69,350,192(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121913548 Amyloidosis 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200] 69,350,224(+) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121913549 pathogenic, Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type 69,350,194(+) T/A coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1384 benign, Familial visceral amyloidosis, Ostertag type 69,354,054(+) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for LYZ Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv952201 CNV duplication 24416366

Variation tolerance for LYZ Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 81.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.23; 40.10% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for LYZ Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for LYZ Gene

Disorders for LYZ Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(57) MalaCards diseases for LYZ Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
amyloidosis, familial visceral
  • amyloidosis viii
al amyloidosis
  • amyloidosis al
  • amyloid disease
reticulohistiocytic granuloma
  • reticulohistiocytoma
kidney papillary necrosis
  • necrotizing renal papillitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search LYZ in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Amyloidosis 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200]: A form of hereditary generalized amyloidosis. Clinical features include extensive visceral amyloid deposits, renal amyloidosis resulting in nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechial skin rash. There is no involvement of the nervous system. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8464497}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for LYZ

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with LYZ: view

No data available for Genatlas for LYZ Gene

Publications for LYZ Gene

  1. Genomic association analysis suggests chromosome 12 locus influencing antihypertensive response to thiazide diuretic. (PMID: 18591461) Turner ST … Boerwinkle E (Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. Human lysozyme gene mutations cause hereditary systemic amyloidosis. (PMID: 8464497) Pepys MB … Terry CJ (Nature 1993) 2 3 4 58
  3. The human lysozyme gene. Sequence organization and chromosomal localization. (PMID: 2546758) Peters CW … Sippel AE (European journal of biochemistry 1989) 2 3 4 58
  4. Identification of fetal and maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes that predispose to spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. (PMID: 20452482) Romero R … Menon R (American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2010) 3 44 58
  5. A genetic association study of maternal and fetal candidate genes that predispose to preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM). (PMID: 20673868) Romero R … Menon R (American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2010) 3 44 58

Products for LYZ Gene

Sources for LYZ Gene

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