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Aliases for ARG2 Gene

Aliases for ARG2 Gene

  • Arginase 2 2 3 5
  • Kidney-Type Arginase 3 4
  • Non-Hepatic Arginase 3 4
  • Arginase, Type II 2 3
  • Type II Arginase 3 4
  • Arginase II 3 4
  • L-Arginine Amidinohydrolase 3
  • Arginase-2, Mitochondrial 3
  • L-Arginine Ureahydrolase 3
  • Nonhepatic Arginase 3
  • Kidney Arginase 3
  • EC 3.5.3.1 4

External Ids for ARG2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ARG2 Gene

  • GC14P065591
  • GC14P061880
  • GC14P066076
  • GC14P067156
  • GC14P068086
  • GC14P048256

Summaries for ARG2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ARG2 Gene

  • Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exists (types I and II) which differ in their tissue distribution, subcellular localization, immunologic crossreactivity and physiologic function. The type II isoform encoded by this gene, is located in the mitochondria and expressed in extra-hepatic tissues, especially kidney. The physiologic role of this isoform is poorly understood; it is thought to play a role in nitric oxide and polyamine metabolism. Transcript variants of the type II gene resulting from the use of alternative polyadenylation sites have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ARG2 Gene

ARG2 (Arginase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ARG2 include Impotence. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arginine and proline metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include arginase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ARG1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARG2 Gene

  • May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxid synthase (NOS). Arginine metabolism is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Seems to be involved in negative regulation of the survival capacity of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (PubMed:27745970). May suppress inflammation-related signaling in asthmatic airway epithelium (PubMed:27214549). May contribute to the immune evasion of H.pylori by restricting M1 macrophage activation and polyamine metabolism (By similarity). In fetal dendritic cells may play a role in promoting immune suppression and T cell TNF-alpha production during gestation (PubMed:28614294). Regulates RPS6KB1 signaling, which promotes endothelial cell senescence and inflammation and implicates NOS3/eNOS dysfunction (PubMed:22928666). Can inhibit endothelial autophagy independently of its enzymatic activity implicating mTORC2 signaling (PubMed:25484082). Involved in vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and apoptosis independently of its enzymatic activity (PubMed:23832324). Since NOS is found in the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, the clitoral corpus cavernosum and the vagina, arginase-2 plays a role in both male and female sexual arousal (PubMed:12859189).

Additional gene information for ARG2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ARG2 Gene

Genomics for ARG2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ARG2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ARG2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH14J067618 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 666.6 +0.0 9 2.2 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B ZNF143 FOS ARG2 PIGH GC14M067653
GH14J067692 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 9.5 +74.8 74832 3.5 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF207 RDH11 PIGH ARG2 RDH12 ENSG00000259502 PLEK2 ENSG00000258466
GH14J067622 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 21.3 +3.4 3354 2.1 ELF3 TAF9B ARID4B SIN3A BRCA1 RARA ETS1 ZNF335 ZSCAN5C PRPF4 ARG2 ENSG00000259502 GC14M067653
GH14J067703 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 20.8 +84.5 84548 1.1 ZSCAN5A CTCF IRF2 SAP130 RB1 ZNF266 RAD21 RFX5 ZBTB48 ARID2 RN7SL369P ARG2 ZFYVE26 PIGH ENSG00000201529 RN7SL213P PLEK2 RDH12
GH14J067666 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 21.3 +47.2 47230 1.8 CTCF TFAP4 ARID4B RAD21 YY1 ZNF316 ARID2 SMC3 ZNF143 IKZF2 ARG2 ENSG00000201529 RDH11 PIGH RDH12 RN7SL369P VTI1B GC14M067658 ENSG00000258466
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ARG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ARG2 gene promoter:
  • STAT3
  • Meis-1a
  • RORalpha2
  • HOXA9
  • HOXA9B
  • Meis-1
  • NCX
  • Pax-2
  • Pax-2a
  • Pax-2b

Genomic Locations for ARG2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ARG2 Gene
chr14:67,619,798-67,651,720
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
31,923 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr14:68,086,515-68,118,437
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
31,923 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for ARG2 Gene

Genes around ARG2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ARG2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ARG2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ARG2 Gene

Proteins for ARG2 Gene

  • Protein details for ARG2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P78540-ARGI2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Arginase-2, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    P78540
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R690
    • Q6FHY8

    Protein attributes for ARG2 Gene

    Size:
    354 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38578 Da
    Cofactor:
    Name=Mn(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29035;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homotrimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ARG2 Gene

neXtProt entry for ARG2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for ARG2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for ARG2 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ARG2 Gene

Domains & Families for ARG2 Gene

Gene Families for ARG2 Gene

IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ARG2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P78540

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ARGI2_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the arginase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the arginase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ARG2: view

Function for ARG2 Gene

Molecular function for ARG2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailability to nitric oxid synthase (NOS). Arginine metabolism is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune responses. Seems to be involved in negative regulation of the survival capacity of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (PubMed:27745970). May suppress inflammation-related signaling in asthmatic airway epithelium (PubMed:27214549). May contribute to the immune evasion of H.pylori by restricting M1 macrophage activation and polyamine metabolism (By similarity). In fetal dendritic cells may play a role in promoting immune suppression and T cell TNF-alpha production during gestation (PubMed:28614294). Regulates RPS6KB1 signaling, which promotes endothelial cell senescence and inflammation and implicates NOS3/eNOS dysfunction (PubMed:22928666). Can inhibit endothelial autophagy independently of its enzymatic activity implicating mTORC2 signaling (PubMed:25484082). Involved in vascular smooth muscle cell senescence and apoptosis independently of its enzymatic activity (PubMed:23832324). Since NOS is found in the penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, the clitoral corpus cavernosum and the vagina, arginase-2 plays a role in both male and female sexual arousal (PubMed:12859189).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
L-arginine + H(2)O = L-ornithine + urea.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
arginase 2,expressed in extra hepatic tissues,putatively involved in nitric oxide synthesis

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ARG2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ARG2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ARG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004053 arginase activity IMP 16128822
GO:0016787 hydrolase activity IEA --
GO:0016813 hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amidines IEA --
GO:0030145 manganese ion binding IBA --
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARG2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ARG2: view

Animal Models for ARG2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ARG2:

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ARG2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ARG2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ARG2

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ARG2 Gene

Localization for ARG2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARG2 Gene

Mitochondrion.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ARG2 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
peroxisome 2
nucleus 2
extracellular 1
cytoskeleton 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ARG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IBA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion TAS 8898077
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARG2: view

Pathways & Interactions for ARG2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ARG2: view

Pathways by source for ARG2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P78540-ARGI2_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Nitrogen metabolism; urea cycle; L-ornithine and urea from L-arginine: step 1/1.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ARG2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000050 urea cycle TAS --
GO:0001657 ureteric bud development IEA --
GO:0002250 adaptive immune response IEA --
GO:0002376 immune system process IEA --
GO:0002829 negative regulation of type 2 immune response IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ARG2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ARG2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ARG2 Gene

(13) Drugs for ARG2 Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ornithine Approved Nutra Target 70
L-Arginine Approved Nutra Full agonist, Agonist, Target 0
Urea Approved, Investigational Pharma 0
Manganese Approved Nutra 37
Water Approved Pharma 0

(1) Additional Compounds for ARG2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ARG2: view

Transcripts for ARG2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ARG2 Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(9) Additional mRNA sequences :
(155) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ARG2 Gene

Arginase, type II:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ARG2

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ARG2 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9
SP1: -
SP2:
SP3: -
SP4:

Relevant External Links for ARG2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ARG2
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for
ARG2

Expression for ARG2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ARG2 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ARG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney - Cortex (x7.0), Pituitary (x4.6), and Prostate (x4.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ARG2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Prostate (38.8), Islet of Langerhans (18.2), and Kidney (6.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ARG2 Gene



NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ARG2 Gene:

ARG2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ARG2 Gene:

Hs.226007

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ARG2 Gene:

P78540-ARGI2_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Expressed most strongly in kidney and prostate, much less strongly in the brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, mammary gland, macrophage, uterus, testis and gut, but apparently not in the liver, heart and pancreas. Expressed in activated T cells (PubMed:27745970).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ARG2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Kidney(4.5)
  • Blood(4.3)
  • Lung(4.3)
  • Muscle(4.3)
  • Thyroid gland(2.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ARG2: view

No data available for Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ARG2 Gene

Orthologs for ARG2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ARG2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ARG2 34 33
  • 99.62 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ARG2 34 33
  • 91.89 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ARG2 34 33
  • 90.11 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Arg2 16 34 33
  • 85.88 (n)
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ARG2 34
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Arg2 33
  • 84.93 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 80 (a)
OneToMany
-- 34
  • 74 (a)
OneToMany
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ARG2 34 33
  • 74.2 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ARG2 34
  • 73 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia arg2 33
  • 70.9 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia MGC53991 33
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii arg2 34 33
  • 62.6 (n)
OneToOne
wufb67g02 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP008783 33
  • 48.87 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta arg 34 33
  • 47.24 (n)
OneToMany
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CAR1 34
  • 36 (a)
OneToMany
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.8475 34
  • 48 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for ARG2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ARG2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ARG2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ARG2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ARG2: view image

Paralogs for ARG2 Gene

Paralogs for ARG2 Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for ARG2 Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

  • ARGI2_HUMAN

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for ARG2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ARG2: view

Variants for ARG2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ARG2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000084856 -- 67,634,349(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000100341 -- 67,624,424(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000189711 -- 67,639,181(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000220904 -- 67,638,962(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000280745 -- 67,618,287(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ARG2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv456331 CNV gain 19166990
nsv470651 CNV gain 18288195
nsv564961 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for ARG2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 73.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.14; 38.84% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ARG2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ARG2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ARG2 Gene

Disorders for ARG2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for ARG2 Gene - From: DISEASES and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
impotence
  • erectile dysfunction
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ARG2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ARG2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ARG2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ARG2 Gene

Publications for ARG2 Gene

  1. Molecular cloning of cDNA for nonhepatic mitochondrial arginase (arginase II) and comparison of its induction with nitric oxide synthase in a murine macrophage-like cell line. (PMID: 8898077) Gotoh T … Mori M (FEBS letters 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Cloning and characterization of the human type II arginase gene. (PMID: 8954792) Vockley JG … Cederbaum SD (Genomics 1996) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Roles of arginase variants, atopy, and ozone in childhood asthma. (PMID: 19281908) Salam MT … Gilliland FD (The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Genetic polymorphisms in arginase I and II and childhood asthma and atopy. (PMID: 16387594) Li H … London SJ (The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2006) 3 22 44 58
  5. Human arginase II: crystal structure and physiological role in male and female sexual arousal. (PMID: 12859189) Cama E … Christianson DW (Biochemistry 2003) 3 4 22 58

Products for ARG2 Gene

Sources for ARG2 Gene

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