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Aliases for ITGAD Gene

Aliases for ITGAD Gene

  • Integrin Subunit Alpha D 2 3 5
  • CD11 Antigen-Like Family Member D 3 4
  • Leukointegrin Alpha D 3 4
  • ADB2 3 4
  • Beta-2 Integrin AlphaD Subunit 3
  • Integrin, Alpha D 2
  • Integrin Alpha-D 3
  • CD11d Antigen 4
  • CD11D 3

External Ids for ITGAD Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ITGAD Gene

  • GC16U990033
  • GC16P031901
  • GC16P031401
  • GC16P031440
  • GC16P031312
  • GC16P028964

Summaries for ITGAD Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ITGAD Gene

  • This gene belongs to the beta-2 integrin family of membrane glycoproteins, which are are composed of non-covalently linked alpha and beta subunits to form a heterodimer. It encodes the alpha subunit of the cell surface heterodimers and is involved in the activation and adhesion functions of leukocytes. The gene is located about 11kb downstream of the integrin subunit alpha X gene, another member of the integrin family. It is expressed in the tissue and circulating myeloid leukocytes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for ITGAD Gene

ITGAD (Integrin Subunit Alpha D) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ITGAD include Chronic Monocytic Leukemia. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and Focal Adhesion. An important paralog of this gene is ITGAX.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ITGAD Gene

  • Integrin alpha-D/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM3 and VCAM1. May play a role in the atherosclerotic process such as clearing lipoproteins from plaques and in phagocytosis of blood-borne pathogens, particulate matter, and senescent erythrocytes from the blood.

Gene Wiki entry for ITGAD Gene

Additional gene information for ITGAD Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ITGAD Gene

Genomics for ITGAD Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ITGAD Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ITGAD Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16J031393 Promoter 0.9 EPDnew 670.2 0.0 -2 0.1 KLF1 ZNF687 ZNF189 ZIC2 OSR2 IKZF1 GLIS1 IKZF2 ITGAD GC16P031393 GC16M031380
GH16J031507 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 5.2 +115.5 115507 3.3 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ZNF213 C16orf58 ENSG00000260625 GC16P031508 PIR61516 RNF40 ENSG00000260267 LINC02190 SETD1A VN1R64P ENSG00000261648
GH16J031484 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 4.2 +91.6 91570 1.7 ELF3 MLX ZSCAN4 ARID4B DMAP1 RAD21 RARA ZNF614 THAP11 MIXL1 ENSG00000260740 ZNF843 ITGAD SLC5A2
GH16J031404 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 +11.5 11487 1.2 HDAC1 PKNOX1 NFIB KLF17 SIN3A ZBTB40 ZNF335 ZNF366 ZNF143 ZFP91 COX6A2 ARMC5 PRSS8 PRSS36 PYCARD STX4 STX1B ENSG00000260740 ENSG00000260757 ITGAD
GH16J031386 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 0.4 -6.6 -6607 0.9 HDAC1 MAX SIN3A CEBPG BMI1 FOSL1 ZFHX2 GATA3 ZNF766 HSF1 GC16M031380 SETD1A YBX3P1 ENSG00000260304 ITGAX PYCARD COX6A2 HSD3B7 PRSS36 STX4
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ITGAD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ITGAD gene promoter:
  • Ik-3
  • Elk-1
  • Pax-4a
  • p53
  • ER-alpha
  • AhR
  • Arnt
  • CUTL1
  • RP58
  • LCR-F1

Genomic Locations for ITGAD Gene

Genomic Locations for ITGAD Gene
33,273 bases
Plus strand
33,194 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ITGAD Gene

Genes around ITGAD on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ITGAD Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ITGAD Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ITGAD Gene

Proteins for ITGAD Gene

  • Protein details for ITGAD Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Integrin alpha-D
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q15575
    • Q15576

    Protein attributes for ITGAD Gene

    1161 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    126758 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of an alpha and a beta subunit. Alpha-D associates with beta-2.
    • Sequence=AAB60634.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

neXtProt entry for ITGAD Gene

Post-translational modifications for ITGAD Gene

  • Glycosylation at isoforms=1045, Asn956, isoforms=872, Asn732, isoforms=690, isoforms=391, Asn99, Asn87, and Asn59
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ITGAD Gene

Domains & Families for ITGAD Gene

Gene Families for ITGAD Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • CD markers
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • The integrin I-domain (insert) is a VWFA domain. Integrins with I-domains do not undergo protease cleavage.
  • Belongs to the integrin alpha chain family.
  • The integrin I-domain (insert) is a VWFA domain. Integrins with I-domains do not undergo protease cleavage.
  • Belongs to the integrin alpha chain family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ITGAD: view

Function for ITGAD Gene

Molecular function for ITGAD Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Integrin alpha-D/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM3 and VCAM1. May play a role in the atherosclerotic process such as clearing lipoproteins from plaques and in phagocytosis of blood-borne pathogens, particulate matter, and senescent erythrocytes from the blood.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
integrin,alpha D,cell surface adhesion receptor mediating cell-adhesion to extra cellular matrix or to other cells,through hetero dimerization and connecting to the cytoskeleton and various signaling molecules within cells,arrayed in tandem with ITGAX (CD11C),dimerizing with ITGB2 in fibrinogen,C3b receptor

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ITGAD Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ITGAD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0046872 metal ion binding IEA --
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ITGAD: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ITGAD: view

Animal Models for ITGAD Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ITGAD:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for ITGAD (Integrin alpha D/CD11d)

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ITGAD Gene

Localization for ITGAD Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ITGAD Gene

Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ITGAD gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 1
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ITGAD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0008305 integrin complex TAS 20187620
GO:0009986 cell surface IC 20563599
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ITGAD: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ITGAD Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ITGAD Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ITGAD: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ITGAD Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006955 immune response NAS 9841932
GO:0007155 cell adhesion IEA --
GO:0007229 integrin-mediated signaling pathway IEA --
GO:0030198 extracellular matrix organization TAS --
GO:0034113 heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IMP 20563599
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ITGAD: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ITGAD Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ITGAD Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for ITGAD Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ITGAD Gene

(16) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(3) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ITGAD Gene

Integrin, alpha D:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • R&D Systems cDNA Clones for ITGAD (Integrin alpha D/CD11d)

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ITGAD Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14 ^ 15 ^ 16 ^ 17 ^ 18 ^ 19 ^ 20 ^ 21 ^ 22 ^
SP1: -
SP2: -
SP3: - - -

ExUns: 23 ^ 24 ^ 25 ^ 26 ^ 27 ^ 28 ^ 29 ^ 30a · 30b

Relevant External Links for ITGAD Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ITGAD Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ITGAD Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ITGAD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spleen (x32.5) and Whole Blood (x7.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ITGAD Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Blymphocyte (67.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ITGAD Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ITGAD Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ITGAD Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ITGAD Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ITGAD Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed moderately on myelomonocytic cell lines and subsets of peripheral blood leukocytes and strongly on tissue-specialized cells, including macrophages foam cells within atherosclerotic plaques, and on splenic red pulp macrophages.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ITGAD Gene

  • Spleen(4.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ITGAD: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ITGAD Gene

Orthologs for ITGAD Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for ITGAD Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ITGAD 34 33
  • 95.63 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ITGAD 34 33
  • 84.09 (n)
-- 34
  • 77 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ITGAD 34 33
  • 82.14 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Itgad 33
  • 79.72 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Itgad 16 34 33
  • 79.47 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 60 (a)
-- 34
  • 59 (a)
-- 34
  • 57 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 55 (a)
-- 34
  • 54 (a)
-- 34
  • 53 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 46 (a)
-- 34
  • 45 (a)
-- 34
  • 44 (a)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii si:dkey-32n7.4 34
  • 36 (a)
Species where no ortholog for ITGAD was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for ITGAD Gene

Gene Tree for ITGAD (if available)
Gene Tree for ITGAD (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ITGAD: view image

Paralogs for ITGAD Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for ITGAD Gene using alignment to 1 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ITGAD: view

Variants for ITGAD Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ITGAD Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs193921125 uncertain-significance, Malignant tumor of prostate 31,423,169(+) A/C coding_sequence_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1000044275 -- 31,409,966(+) A/T intron_variant
rs1000065253 -- 31,426,651(+) G/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000132604 -- 31,417,591(+) G/T genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000180487 -- 31,404,540(+) G/C intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ITGAD Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv503e214 CNV gain 21293372
esv25470 CNV gain 19812545
esv2714194 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3638398 CNV gain 21293372
esv3638399 CNV loss 21293372
esv3638400 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1059610 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1061980 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1066280 CNV gain 25217958
nsv833194 CNV loss 17160897
nsv953804 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for ITGAD Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 96.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.20; 52.17% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ITGAD Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ITGAD Gene

Disorders for ITGAD Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for ITGAD Gene - From: DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
chronic monocytic leukemia
  • leukemia, myeloid
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ITGAD in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for ITGAD

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ITGAD: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ITGAD Gene

Publications for ITGAD Gene

  1. Mapping of the human CD11c (ITGAX) and CD11d (ITGAD) genes demonstrates that they are arranged in tandem separated by no more than 11.5 kb. (PMID: 9598326) Shelley CS … Arnaout MA (Genomics 1998) 2 3 22 58
  2. Cloning and chromosomal localization of a novel gene-encoding a human beta 2-integrin alpha subunit. (PMID: 8666289) Wong DA … Springer TA (Gene 1996) 2 3 4 58
  3. Expression of the myeloid-specific leukocyte integrin gene CD11d during macrophage foam cell differentiation and exposure to lipoproteins. (PMID: 12429998) Noti JD (International journal of molecular medicine 2002) 3 22 58
  4. Structural and functional characterization of the leukocyte integrin gene CD11d. Essential role of Sp1 and Sp3. (PMID: 10722744) Noti JD … Dillon JD (The Journal of biological chemistry 2000) 3 4 58
  5. The leukocyte integrin alpha D beta 2 binds VCAM-1: evidence for a binding interface between I domain and VCAM-1. (PMID: 10438935) Van der Vieren M … Staunton DE (Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1999) 3 4 58

Products for ITGAD Gene

Sources for ITGAD Gene

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