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Aliases for IL1B Gene

Aliases for IL1B Gene

  • Interleukin 1 Beta 2 3 5
  • Catabolin 3 4
  • IL-1 Beta 3 4
  • IL1F2 3 4
  • Pro-Interleukin-1-Beta 3
  • Preinterleukin 1 Beta 3
  • Interleukin-1 Beta 3
  • IL1-BETA 3
  • IL-1 3

External Ids for IL1B Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for IL1B Gene

  • GC02M110793
  • GC02M111508
  • GC02M113494
  • GC02M113682
  • GC02M113303
  • GC02M106041
  • GC02M113587

Summaries for IL1B Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for IL1B Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for IL1B Gene

IL1B (Interleukin 1 Beta) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with IL1B include Gastric Cancer, Hereditary Diffuse and Periodontal Disease. Among its related pathways are CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein domain specific binding and interleukin-1 receptor binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IL1B Gene

  • Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, B-cell activation and antibody production, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Promotes Th17 differentiation of T-cells.

Tocris Summary for IL1B Gene

  • Cytokines are proteinaceous signaling compounds that are major mediators of the immune response. They control many different cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis but are also involved in several pathophysiological processes.

Gene Wiki entry for IL1B Gene

Additional gene information for IL1B Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for IL1B Gene

Genomics for IL1B Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for IL1B Gene

Promoters and enhancers for IL1B Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02J112826 Promoter/Enhancer 1.8 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 664.8 +4.6 4631 10.9 PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ARID4B FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF48 YY1 TCF12 ZNF766 IL1B IL1A CKAP2L IL37 POLR1B FLJ42351 GC02M112788
GH02J112811 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 75.3 +23.6 23598 4.3 ATF1 IRF4 FOS ATF7 RUNX3 NFKBIZ RXRA JUNB SMARCA4 ETV4 IL1B IL1RN IL1A IL37 IL36B IL36G CKAP2L IL36RN GC02M112788
GH02J112884 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 83.8 -48.4 -48444 1.3 RB1 ARID4B THRB ZNF48 RAD21 RARA ARID2 ZSCAN5C ZNF207 ZNF143 PIR39579 IL1B IL1RN IL1A IL37 IL36G CKAP2L IL36B IL36RN PIR40727
GH02J112875 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 68.4 -42.1 -42114 7.2 FOXA2 IRF4 TCF12 FOS RUNX3 JUNB ZNF592 NFIL3 SMARCA4 ZNF184 IL1B IL1RN IL1A IL36B IL37 IL36G CKAP2L IL36RN PIR40727 XIAPP3
GH02J112792 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 58.9 +42.1 42136 4.4 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZNF766 CBX5 E2F8 JUNB REST ZNF592 MEF2D IL1B IL1RN ANAPC1 IL1A CKAP2L CBWD2 RGPD8 IL36G ZC3H6 TMEM87B
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around IL1B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the IL1B gene promoter:
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • AP-1
  • STAT3
  • COUP
  • COUP-TF1
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • GR-alpha

Genomic Locations for IL1B Gene

Genomic Locations for IL1B Gene
7,153 bases
Minus strand
7,153 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for IL1B Gene

Genes around IL1B on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
IL1B Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for IL1B Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for IL1B Gene

Proteins for IL1B Gene

  • Protein details for IL1B Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Interleukin-1 beta
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53X59
    • Q53XX2
    • Q7M4S7
    • Q7RU01
    • Q96HE5
    • Q9UCT6

    Protein attributes for IL1B Gene

    269 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30748 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer. In its precursor form, weakly interacts with full-length MEFV; the mature cytokine does not interact at all (PubMed:17431422). Interacts with integrins ITGAV:ITGBV and ITGA5:ITGB1; integrin-binding is required for IL1B signaling (PubMed:29030430).
    • The IL1B production occurs in 2 steps, each being controlled by different stimuli. First, inflammatory signals, such as LPS, stimulate the synthesis and promote the accumulation of cytosolic stores of pro-IL1B (priming). Then additional signals are required for inflammasome assembly, leading to CASP1 activation, pro-IL1B processing and eventually secretion of the active cytokine. IL1B processing and secretion are temporarily associated.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for IL1B Gene

neXtProt entry for IL1B Gene

Post-translational modifications for IL1B Gene

  • Activation of the IL1B precursor involves a CASP1-catalyzed proteolytic cleavage. Processing and secretion are temporarily associated.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for IL1B Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for IL1B (IL-1 beta/IL-1F2)

Assay Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for IL1B Gene

Domains & Families for IL1B Gene

Gene Families for IL1B Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for IL1B Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the IL-1 family.
  • Belongs to the IL-1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with IL1B: view

Function for IL1B Gene

Molecular function for IL1B Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Potent proinflammatory cytokine. Initially discovered as the major endogenous pyrogen, induces prostaglandin synthesis, neutrophil influx and activation, T-cell activation and cytokine production, B-cell activation and antibody production, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production. Promotes Th17 differentiation of T-cells.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By LPS (PubMed:15192144). Transcription and translation induced by M.tuberculosis and a number of different M.tuberculosis components in macrophages; EsxA is the most potent activator tested (at protein level) (PubMed:20148899). In pancreatic islets, release is increased by high glucose treatment. In pancreatic islets and macrophages, release is also increased by endocannabinoid anandamide/AEA (PubMed:23955712).
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
interleukin 1,17.3kDa,beta polypeptide,mainly expressed by macrophages osteoblastic cells and putatively stimulating osteoclastogenesis,inducing the association of TRAF6 with IRAK1,involved in the inflammatory response,susceptibility factor for inflammatory bowel diseaes

LifeMap Function Summary for IL1B Gene

IL1B as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for IL1B Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for IL1B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005125 cytokine activity IEA,IMP 2989698
GO:0005149 interleukin-1 receptor binding IEA,NAS 1919436
GO:0005178 integrin binding IDA 29030430
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15817483
GO:0019904 protein domain specific binding IPI 16575408
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL1B: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with IL1B: view

Animal Models for IL1B Gene

MGI Knock Outs for IL1B:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for IL1B

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for IL1B Gene

Localization for IL1B Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for IL1B Gene

Cytoplasm, cytosol. Lysosome. Secreted, exosome. Secreted. Note=The precursor is cytosolic. In response to inflammasome-activating signals, such as ATP for NLRP3 inflammasome or bacterial flagellin for NLRC4 inflammasome, cleaved and secreted. IL1B lacks any known signal sequence and the pathway(s) of its secretion is(are) not yet fully understood (PubMed:24201029). On the basis of experimental results, several unconventional secretion mechanisms have been proposed. 1. Secretion via secretory lysosomes: a fraction of CASP1 and IL1B precursor may be incorporated, by a yet undefined mechanism, into secretory lysosomes that undergo Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis with release of mature IL1B (PubMed:15192144). 2. Secretory autophagy: IL1B-containing autophagosomes may fuse with endosomes or multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and then merge with the plasma membrane releasing soluble IL1B or IL1B-containing exosomes (PubMed:24201029). However, autophagy impacts IL1B production at several levels and its role in secretion is still controversial. 3. Secretion via exosomes: ATP-activation of P2RX7 leads to the formation of MVBs containing exosomes with entrapped IL1B, CASP1 and other inflammasome components. These MVBs undergo exocytosis with the release of exosomes. The release of soluble IL1B occurs after the lysis of exosome membranes (By similarity). 4. Secretion by microvesicle shedding: activation of the ATP receptor P2RX7 may induce an immediate shedding of membrane-derived microvesicles containing IL1B and possibly inflammasome components. The cytokine is then released in the extracellular compartment after microvesicle lysis (PubMed:11728343). 5. Release by translocation through permeabilized plasma membrane. This may occur in cells undergoing pyroptosis due to sustained activation of the inflammasome (By similarity). These mechanisms may not be not mutually exclusive. {ECO:0000250 UniProtKB:P10749, ECO:0000269 PubMed:11728343, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15192144, ECO:0000305 PubMed:24201029}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for IL1B gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
lysosome 4
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for IL1B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS,IEA --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IMP,IEA 3493774
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005764 lysosome IEA --
GO:0005776 autophagosome IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL1B: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for IL1B Gene

Pathways & Interactions for IL1B Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with IL1B: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for IL1B Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for IL1B Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000165 MAPK cascade IMP 21147091
GO:0000187 activation of MAPK activity IDA 10748004
GO:0001660 fever generation IBA,IEA --
GO:0001934 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation NAS 16477012
GO:0002437 inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with IL1B: view

Drugs & Compounds for IL1B Gene

(102) Drugs for IL1B Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, modulator 242
canakinumab Approved, Investigational Pharma immunotherapy, antibody, Target, binder Immunotherapies 0
Rilonacept Approved, Investigational Pharma binder, Target 0
Clodronate Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma 10
Infliximab Approved Pharma 407

(67) Additional Compounds for IL1B Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
AS 101
GIT 27

(4) Tocris Compounds for IL1B Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
AS 101 Immunomodulator; inhibits IL-10 synthesis and potentiates IL-1alpha, IL-2 and TNF-alpha release 106566-58-9
GIT 27 Immunomodulator; reduces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines 6501-72-0
Pirfenidone Antifibrotic agent; regulates cytokine levels in vivo 53179-13-8
Thalidomide TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitor 50-35-1
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with IL1B: view

Transcripts for IL1B Gene

mRNA/cDNA for IL1B Gene

Unigene Clusters for IL1B Gene

Interleukin 1, beta:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for IL1B

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for IL1B Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b · 1c ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c · 6d ^ 7 ^ 8
SP1: - - - - -
SP2: - - - -
SP3: - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - -
SP6: - - -

Relevant External Links for IL1B Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for IL1B Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for IL1B Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for IL1B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x17.8) and Stomach (x4.1).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for IL1B Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pancreas (44.9) and Bone (24.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for IL1B Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for IL1B Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of IL1B Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for IL1B Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for IL1B Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in activated monocytes/macrophages (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for IL1B Gene

  • Blood(4.9)
  • Lung(4.8)
  • Skin(4.6)
  • Nervous system(3.8)
  • Intestine(3.7)
  • Spleen(3.6)
  • Bone marrow(3.5)
  • Liver(3.5)
  • Lymph node(3.3)
  • Heart(3.1)
  • Kidney(3.1)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Stomach(2.8)
  • Bone(2.7)
  • Pancreas(2.7)
  • Adrenal gland(2.6)
  • Eye(2.5)
  • Saliva(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with IL1B: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for IL1B Gene

Orthologs for IL1B Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for IL1B Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia IL1B 34 33
  • 99.5 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Il1b 16 34 33
  • 78.45 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia IL1B 34 33
  • 78.28 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Il1b 33
  • 76.32 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia IL1B 34 33
  • 75.38 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia IL1B 34
  • 46 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia IL1B 34
  • 39 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves IL-1BETA 34
  • 25 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia il1b 33
  • 48.77 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii il1b 34
  • 21 (a)
Species where no ortholog for IL1B was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for IL1B Gene

Gene Tree for IL1B (if available)
Gene Tree for IL1B (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for IL1B: view image

Paralogs for IL1B Gene

(1) SIMAP similar genes for IL1B Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with IL1B: view

No data available for Paralogs for IL1B Gene

Variants for IL1B Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for IL1B Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1143627 risk-factor, Gastric cancer susceptibility after h. pylori infection 112,836,810(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs281864746 not-provided, Coronary heart disease 2 112,835,183(-) C/G intron_variant
rs1000050546 -- 112,830,098(-) C/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000769125 -- 112,831,737(-) A/G intron_variant
rs1000920623 -- 112,838,617(-) C/ upstream_transcript_variant

Variation tolerance for IL1B Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28.4% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.36; 7.95% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for IL1B Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for IL1B Gene

Disorders for IL1B Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(230) MalaCards diseases for IL1B Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, GTR, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
gastric cancer, hereditary diffuse
  • hdgc
periodontal disease
  • disease of supporting structures of teeth
toxic shock syndrome
  • toxic shock
  • acute gingivitis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search IL1B in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for IL1B

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with IL1B: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for IL1B Gene

Publications for IL1B Gene

  1. Circulating IL-1beta levels, polymorphisms of IL-1B, and risk of cervical cancer in Chinese women. (PMID: 19904560) Qian N … Hu Z (Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. Genetic susceptibility to different clinical forms of tuberculosis in the Peruvian population. (PMID: 20188863) Taype CA … Shaw MA (Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Effect of desensitization in solid organ transplant recipients depends on some cytokines genes polymorphism. (PMID: 19332120) Lobashevsky AL … Turrentine MW (Transplant immunology 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Association of IL10 and other immune response- and obesity-related genes with prostate cancer in CLUE II. (PMID: 19267370) Wang MH … Platz EA (The Prostate 2009) 3 22 44 58
  5. Analysis of inflammation- and atherosclerosis-related gene polymorphisms in branch retinal vein occlusion. (PMID: 19347053) Steinbrugger I … Weger M (Molecular vision 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for IL1B Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for IL1B