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Aliases for GNRH2 Gene

Aliases for GNRH2 Gene

  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2 2 3 5
  • Progonadoliberin II 3 4
  • Progonadoliberin-2 2 3
  • Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone II 3
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone 2 2
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide II 3
  • GnRH-Associated Peptide 2 3
  • Gonadoliberin II 3
  • Gonadoliberin-2 3
  • Luliberin II 3
  • GnRH-II 3
  • LH-RHII 3

External Ids for GNRH2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GNRH2 Gene

  • GC20P003012
  • GC20P002972
  • GC20P003019
  • GC20P003033
  • GC20P003038
  • GC20P003043

Summaries for GNRH2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GNRH2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a secreted peptide hormone and member of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) family of proteins. The encoded protein regulates reproductive function by stimulating the production and release of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The encoded protein may inhibit endometrial, ovarian, prostate, and breast cancer cell proliferation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]

GeneCards Summary for GNRH2 Gene

GNRH2 (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GNRH2 include Breast Cancer. Among its related pathways are ERK Signaling and Akt Signaling. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene

  • Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.

Gene Wiki entry for GNRH2 Gene

Additional gene information for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GNRH2 Gene

Genomics for GNRH2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GNRH2 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GNRH2 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH20J003041 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 656.6 +3.6 3631 2.4 FOXA2 RXRA MAX REST GABPA NR2F2 YY1 SP1 ZFHX2 POLR2A GNRH2 MRPS26
GH20J003106 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.2 +68.0 68033 0.9 ELF3 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 THRB ZNF48 RARA CREM THAP11 MIXL1 UBOX5-AS1 LZTS3 MRPS26 GNRH2 OXT UBOX5 ITPA GC20P003124
GH20J002740 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 10.3 -297.1 -297104 2.3 DRAP1 CTCF ARID4B SIN3A ERF ZNF48 GLIS2 ZBTB48 ZNF143 GATAD2A EBF4 VPS16 PTPRA PCED1A C20orf141 TMEM239 ENSG00000241690 ENSG00000228293 IDH3B SNORD57
GH20J003104 Enhancer 0.5 ENCODE 12.2 +66.0 66009 0.2 CTCF IKZF1 NR2F1 ZNF143 NR2F6 HOMEZ RAD21 UBOX5-AS1 LZTS3 MRPS26 GNRH2 OXT RN7SL555P
GH20J003149 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 11.3 +110.1 110137 0.1 FASTKD5 LZTS3 MRPS26 GNRH2 DDRGK1 PTPRA VPS16 UBOX5 GC20P003124 UBOX5-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GNRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GNRH2 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • deltaCREB
  • CREB
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun

Genomic Locations for GNRH2 Gene

Genomic Locations for GNRH2 Gene
6,800 bases
Plus strand
2,126 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GNRH2 Gene

Genes around GNRH2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GNRH2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GNRH2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GNRH2 Gene

Proteins for GNRH2 Gene

  • Protein details for GNRH2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q14C68
    • Q14C69
    • Q9BYN9
    • Q9BYP0

    Protein attributes for GNRH2 Gene

    120 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    12918 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for GNRH2 Gene


neXtProt entry for GNRH2 Gene

Post-translational modifications for GNRH2 Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GNRH2 Gene

Domains & Families for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Families for GNRH2 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GNRH2 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GNRH2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
  • Belongs to the GnRH family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GNRH2: view

Function for GNRH2 Gene

Molecular function for GNRH2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Stimulates the secretion of gonadotropins; it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
gonadotropin releasing hormone 2,mesencephalic form,expressed in midbrain,kidney,bone marrow prostate,including a GNRH-associated peptide

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IEA --
GO:0005183 gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity IBA --
GO:0031530 gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor binding IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GNRH2: view

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GNRH2 Gene

Localization for GNRH2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GNRH2 gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
cytosol 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GNRH2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GNRH2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GNRH2: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GNRH2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000003 reproduction IBA --
GO:0007165 signal transduction TAS 9419371
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0007275 multicellular organism development IEA --
GO:0010469 regulation of signaling receptor activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GNRH2: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GNRH2 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GNRH2 Gene

(7) Drugs for GNRH2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Alarelin Acetate Pharma Synthetic GnRH agonist 0
GnRH Associated Peptide (GAP) (1-13), human Pharma Asp-Ala-Glu-Asn-Leu-Ile-Asp-Ser-Phe-Gln-Glu-Ile-Val 0
Goserelin acetate Pharma GnRH receptor agonist 0

(2) Additional Compounds for GNRH2 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GNRH2: view

Transcripts for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GNRH2 Gene

(5) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(5) Additional mRNA sequences :
(10) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(4) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GNRH2 Gene

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GNRH2 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GNRH2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GNRH2 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GNRH2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain - Cerebellum (x5.1) and Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x4.9).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GNRH2 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GNRH2 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GNRH2 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Midbrain; expressed at significantly higher levels outside the brain (up to 30-fold), particularly in the kidney, bone marrow and prostate.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GNRH2 Gene

  • Nervous system(2.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GNRH2: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GNRH2 Gene

Orthologs for GNRH2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GNRH2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GNRH2 34 33
  • 97.3 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GNRH2 33
  • 74.19 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GNRH2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • dog (Canis familiaris)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • mouse (Mus musculus)
  • oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GNRH2 Gene

Gene Tree for GNRH2 (if available)
Gene Tree for GNRH2 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GNRH2: view image

Paralogs for GNRH2 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GNRH2 Gene

Variants for GNRH2 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GNRH2 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 20 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000105295 -- 3,041,772(+) A/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000129573 -- 3,046,214(+) A/G/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000388656 -- 3,040,499(+) C/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000680940 -- 3,041,747(+) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001120595 -- 3,042,029(+) C/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GNRH2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1057187 CNV gain 25217958
nsv482064 CNV gain 20164927
nsv585276 CNV gain 21841781
nsv833896 CNV loss 17160897
nsv833897 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GNRH2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 8.17; 84.77% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GNRH2 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GNRH2 Gene

Disorders for GNRH2 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(1) MalaCards diseases for GNRH2 Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
breast cancer
  • breast cancer, familial
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GNRH2 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GNRH2

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GNRH2: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GNRH2 Gene

Publications for GNRH2 Gene

  1. Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans. (PMID: 9419371) White RB … Fernald RD (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. The neuropeptides GnRH-II and GnRH-I are produced by human T cells and trigger laminin receptor gene expression, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs. (PMID: 12447356) Chen A … Levite M (Nature medicine 2002) 2 3 22 58
  3. GnRH I and II up-regulate MMP-26 expression through the JNK pathway in human cytotrophoblasts. (PMID: 20074375) Liu J … Wang YL (Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 2010) 3 22 58
  4. Expression of hCG and GnRHs and their receptors in endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. (PMID: 20130508) Jankowska AG … Warchol PJ (International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society 2010) 3 22 58
  5. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 44 58

Products for GNRH2 Gene

Sources for GNRH2 Gene

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