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Aliases for GC Gene

Aliases for GC Gene

  • GC, Vitamin D Binding Protein 2 3 5
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein-Macrophage Activating Factor 3 4
  • Group-Specific Component (Vitamin D Binding Protein) 2 3
  • Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor 3 4
  • Gc-Globulin 3 4
  • DBP-Maf 3 4
  • Gc-MAF 3 4
  • GcMAF 3 4
  • DBP 3 4
  • VDB 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 51 3
  • Vitamin D-Binding Alpha-Globulin 3
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein 3
  • Group-Specific Component 4
  • HEL-S-51 3
  • DBP/GC 3
  • GRD3 3
  • VDBG 3
  • VDBP 3
  • Gc 4

External Ids for GC Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GC Gene

  • GC04M072596
  • GC04M072847
  • GC04M073008
  • GC04M073073
  • GC04M072972
  • GC04M072826
  • GC04M068412

Summaries for GC Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GC Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the albumin gene family. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types. It binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites and transports them to target tissues. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GeneCards Summary for GC Gene

GC (GC, Vitamin D Binding Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GC include Blastomycosis and Acute Liver Failure. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include actin binding. An important paralog of this gene is ALB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GC Gene

  • Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.

Gene Wiki entry for GC Gene

Additional gene information for GC Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GC Gene

Genomics for GC Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GC Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GC Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J071784 Promoter 0.9 EPDnew 650.3 +21.4 21421 0.1 CTCF FOXA2 TAF1 RXRA MAX REST RAD21 FOXA1 YY1 SP1 GC GC04P071770 GC04P071803 GC04M071760
GH04J071771 Enhancer 0.6 FANTOM5 40.5 +33.8 33763 0.2 TAF1 RXRA REST RAD21 YY1 SP1 JUND ATF3 CEBPA HNF4A GC GC04P071770 GC04P071803 GC04M071760
GH04J071857 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE 5.5 -52.5 -52521 2.7 PKNOX1 ATF1 ARNT FEZF1 NCOA2 TCF12 POLR2B CBX5 GATA2 E2F8 GC GC04M071760 NPFFR2
GH04J071752 Enhancer 0.2 ENCODE 11.3 +53.0 53038 0.4 GC RNA5SP163 PIR60268
GH04J071765 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 0.3 +39.5 39511 0.2 NANOG POU5F1 GC04P071770 RNA5SP163 GC GC04M071760
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around GC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GC gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • C/EBPalpha
  • Nkx2-5
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • c-Jun
  • ATF-2
  • HSF1short
  • HSF1 (long)

Genomic Locations for GC Gene

Genomic Locations for GC Gene
63,828 bases
Minus strand
63,828 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for GC Gene

Genes around GC on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GC Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GC Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GC Gene

Proteins for GC Gene

  • Protein details for GC Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Vitamin D-binding protein
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DPP2
    • D6RAK8
    • Q16309
    • Q16310
    • Q53F31
    • Q6GTG1

    Protein attributes for GC Gene

    474 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    52964 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Associates with membrane-bound immunoglobulin on the surface of B-lymphocytes and with IgG Fc receptor on the membranes of T-lymphocytes. Interacts with LRP2; the interaction is required for renal uptake of GC in complex with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (By similarity).
    • Sequence=BAG60654.1; Type=Erroneous translation; Note=Wrong choice of CDS.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GC Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for GC Gene


neXtProt entry for GC Gene

Post-translational modifications for GC Gene

  • Allele GC*1S is O-glycosylated at Thr-436 (PubMed:20079467). The trisaccharide sugar moiety can be modified by the successive removal of neuraminic acid and galactose leaving an O-linked N-acetyl-galactosamine. This conversion is thought to produce a macrophage-activating factor (Gc-MAF). Only a minor proportion of plasma GC is O-glycosylated (PubMed:17360250). The potential N-glycosylation site predicted at Asn-288 is thought to be nonglycosylated.
  • Glycosylation at isoforms=2, 3288
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • VTDB_HUMAN (619)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GC Gene

Domains & Families for GC Gene

Gene Families for GC Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GC Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.
  • Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GC: view

Function for GC Gene

Molecular function for GC Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in vitamin D transport and storage, scavenging of extracellular G-actin, enhancement of the chemotactic activity of C5 alpha for neutrophils in inflammation and macrophage activation.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein),52.9kDa,found in plasma,CSF,urine and the cell surface of many cell types

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003779 actin binding IPI 12119014
GO:0005499 vitamin D binding TAS,IEA 1696927
GO:0090482 vitamin transmembrane transporter activity IEA --
GO:1902118 calcidiol binding IDA 11799400
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GC: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GC: view

Animal Models for GC Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GC:
  • Gc Gc<tm1Nec>
  • Gc Gc<tm1.1(KOMP)Vlcg>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for GC Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target GC

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GC

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GC Gene

Localization for GC Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GC Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GC gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
cytosol 5
lysosome 4
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space HDA,IEA 16502470
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0043202 lysosomal lumen TAS --
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 23533145
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GC: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GC Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GC Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GC: view

Pathways by source for GC Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GC Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0035461 vitamin transmembrane transport IEA --
GO:0042359 vitamin D metabolic process TAS,IEA --
GO:0051180 vitamin transport TAS,IEA 1696927
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GC: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for GC Gene

Drugs & Compounds for GC Gene

(35) Drugs for GC Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Calcitriol Approved Nutra Target TNF-α and IL-1β production inhibitor, Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonist 223
Vitamin D Approved, Vet_approved Nutra Target 1796
Alfacalcidol Approved Nutra Carrier, substrate Bone resorption inhibitor 68
oleic acid Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Pharma Full agonist, Agonist, Activation, Activator, Carrier 0
Vitamin D3 Approved Nutra Carrier Fat-soluble secosteroids 922,916

(26) Additional Compounds for GC Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GC: view

Transcripts for GC Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GC Gene

Unigene Clusters for GC Gene

Group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein):
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for GC

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GC Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GC Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GC Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GC Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x52.0).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GC Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Serum (16.3), Plasma (12.8), and Vitreous humor (8.8).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for GC Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GC Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GC Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GC Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for GC Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expressed in the liver. Found in plasma, ascites, cerebrospinal fluid and urine.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GC Gene

  • Liver(5)
  • Kidney(4.5)
  • Pancreas(3.3)
  • Blood(3.1)
  • Gall bladder(2.5)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Heart(2.3)
  • Urine(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GC: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GC Gene

Orthologs for GC Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for GC Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GC 34 33
  • 99.51 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GC 34 33
  • 84.6 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GC 34 33
  • 84.6 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gc 16 34 33
  • 80.45 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gc 33
  • 80.31 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia GC 34
  • 56 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 55 (a)
-- 34
  • 52 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves GC 34 33
  • 59.36 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia GC 34
  • 43 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia gc 33
  • 55.44 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii gc 34 33
  • 46.74 (n)
Species where no ortholog for GC was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for GC Gene

Gene Tree for GC (if available)
Gene Tree for GC (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for GC: view image

Paralogs for GC Gene

Paralogs for GC Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with GC: view

Variants for GC Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GC Gene

Over 80 variants of human DBP have been identified. The three most common alleles are called GC*1F, GC*1S, and GC*2. The sequence shown is that of the GC*2 allele.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GC Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs4588 benign, GC1/GC2 POLYMORPHISM 71,752,606(-) G/A/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs7041 benign, GC1/GC2 POLYMORPHISM 71,752,617(-) A/C/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant
rs1000138805 -- 71,791,736(-) A/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000169255 -- 71,782,510(-) G/T intron_variant
rs1000221924 -- 71,741,451(-) T/A downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GC Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3600956 CNV loss 21293372
esv3600957 CNV gain 21293372
nsv437395 CNV loss 16327808
nsv822615 CNV gain 20364138
nsv829967 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for GC Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 74% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.28; 40.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GC Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for GC Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(13) MalaCards diseases for GC Gene - From: HGMD, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
  • blastomyces dermatitidis infection
acute liver failure
  • acute hepatic failure
hepatic encephalopathy
  • portal-systemic encephalopathy
  • active rickets
paracetamol poisoning
  • acetaminophen poisoning
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GC in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GC

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GC: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GC Gene

Publications for GC Gene

  1. The glycosylation and characterization of the candidate Gc macrophage activating factor. (PMID: 20079467) Ravnsborg T … Højrup P (Biochimica et biophysica acta 2010) 3 4 22 58
  2. Genetic polymorphisms of the vitamin D binding protein and plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in premenopausal women. (PMID: 19116321) Sinotte M … Brisson J (The American journal of clinical nutrition 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Vitamin D-related genes, serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk. (PMID: 19255064) Ahn J … Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Trial Project Team (Carcinogenesis 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. The Gc2 allele of the vitamin D binding protein is associated with a decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, independent of the vitamin D status. (PMID: 18559548) Abbas S … Chang-Claude J (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2008) 3 22 44 58
  5. Vitamin D binding protein, bone status and body composition in community-dwelling elderly men. (PMID: 16309986) Taes YE … Kaufman JM (Bone 2006) 3 22 44 58

Products for GC Gene

Sources for GC Gene

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