Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for WHRN Gene

Aliases for WHRN Gene

  • Whirlin 2 3 3 5
  • Autosomal Recessive Deafness Type 31 Protein 3 4
  • DFNB31 3 4
  • Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 31 2
  • CASK-Interacting Protein CIP98 3
  • KIAA1526 4
  • PDZD7B 3
  • CIP98 3
  • USH2D 3
  • WI 3

External Ids for WHRN Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for WHRN Gene

  • DFNB31

Summaries for WHRN Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for WHRN Gene

  • This gene is thought to function in the organization and stabilization of sterocilia elongation and actin cystoskeletal assembly, based on studies of the related mouse gene. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness and Usher Syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2016]

GeneCards Summary for WHRN Gene

WHRN (Whirlin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with WHRN include Deafness, Autosomal Recessive 31 and Usher Syndrome, Type Iid. An important paralog of this gene is PDZD7.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WHRN Gene

  • Necessary for elongation and maintenance of inner and outer hair cell stereocilia in the organ of Corti in the inner ear.

Gene Wiki entry for WHRN Gene

Additional gene information for WHRN Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for WHRN Gene

Genomics for WHRN Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for WHRN Gene

Promoters and enhancers for WHRN Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09I114501 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 563 +1.7 1737 5 ATF1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ZNF766 ZNF143 FOS ATF7 WHRN ZNF618 LOC105376228
GH09I114586 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 44.4 -84.7 -84739 7.2 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 SMAD1 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ATP6V1G1 WHRN ZNF618 ENSG00000201749 COL27A1 TMEM268 TNFSF8 AKNA GC09P114599 PIR33481
GH09I114360 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 27.8 +129.4 129373 30.6 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 SMAD1 ZFP64 SIN3A YBX1 IRF4 BRCA1 ZNF121 AKNA WHRN TMEM268 ENSG00000201749 ORM1 ORM2 ATP6V1G1 ENSG00000235119
GH09I114550 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 35.7 -46.9 -46948 3.7 PKNOX1 ATF1 NEUROD1 FEZF1 GLIS2 ATF7 FOS REST TSHZ1 SMARCB1 WHRN TNFSF15 ATP6V1G1 TNFSF8 LOC105376229
GH09I114483 Enhancer 1.7 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 25.7 +21.1 21093 2.5 HDGF ATF1 ARNT IRF4 ZNF143 ATF7 FOS RUNX3 DEK NCOA1 WHRN TNFSF15 TNFSF8 ATP6V1G1 LOC100131877 AKNA
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around WHRN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Genomic Locations for WHRN Gene

Genomic Locations for WHRN Gene
103,432 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for WHRN Gene

Genes around WHRN on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
WHRN Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for WHRN Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for WHRN Gene

Proteins for WHRN Gene

  • Protein details for WHRN Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A5PKU1
    • A5PKZ9
    • Q5TAU9
    • Q5TAV0
    • Q5TAV1
    • Q5TAV2
    • Q96MZ9
    • Q9H9F4
    • Q9UFZ3

    Protein attributes for WHRN Gene

    907 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    96586 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms homooligomers (By similarity). Interacts with USH2A (PubMed:16434480). Interacts with GPR98/MASS1 (PubMed:16434480). Interacts (via C-terminal PDZ domain) with MPP1/p55 (PubMed:17584769). Interacts with CIB2 (PubMed:23023331). Interacts (via C-terminal PDZ domain) with MYO15A; this interaction is necessary for localization of WHRN to stereocilia tips. Interacts with LRRC4C/NGL1. Interacts with MYO7A. Interacts with RPGR. Interacts with EPS8. Interacts with CASK (By similarity).
    • Sequence=BAA96050.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally shortened.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for WHRN Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for WHRN Gene


neXtProt entry for WHRN Gene

Post-translational modifications for WHRN Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for WHRN Gene

Domains & Families for WHRN Gene

Gene Families for WHRN Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for WHRN Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for WHRN Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with WHRN: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WHRN Gene

Function for WHRN Gene

Molecular function for WHRN Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Necessary for elongation and maintenance of inner and outer hair cell stereocilia in the organ of Corti in the inner ear.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for WHRN Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for WHRN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17584769
GO:0042803 protein homodimerization activity IEA --
GO:0046982 protein heterodimerization activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WHRN: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with WHRN: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for WHRN Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for WHRN Gene

MGI Knock Outs for WHRN:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for WHRN Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target WHRN

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for WHRN Gene

Localization for WHRN Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WHRN Gene

Cytoplasm. Cell projection, stereocilium. Cell projection, growth cone. Note=Detected at the level of stereocilia in inner outer hair cells of the cochlea and vestibule. Colocalizes with the growing ends of actin filaments (By similarity). Colocalizes with MPP1 in the retina, at the outer limiting membrane (OLM), outer plexifirm layer (OPL), basal bodies and at the connecting cilium (CC). {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17584769}.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for WHRN gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
cytoskeleton 2

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for WHRN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001917 photoreceptor inner segment IEA --
GO:0002141 stereocilia ankle link IEA --
GO:0002142 stereocilia ankle link complex IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 16434480
GO:0005884 actin filament IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WHRN: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for WHRN Gene

Pathways & Interactions for WHRN Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for WHRN Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001895 retina homeostasis IMP 17171570
GO:0007605 sensory perception of sound IMP 17171570
GO:0010628 positive regulation of gene expression IEA --
GO:0021694 cerebellar Purkinje cell layer formation IEA --
GO:0045184 establishment of protein localization IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WHRN: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for WHRN Gene

Drugs & Compounds for WHRN Gene

(1) Drugs for WHRN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(1) Additional Compounds for WHRN Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with WHRN: view

Transcripts for WHRN Gene

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WHRN Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for WHRN Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for WHRN Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of WHRN Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for WHRN Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for WHRN Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • immune
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • inner ear
  • middle ear
  • outer ear
  • skull
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with WHRN: view

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for WHRN Gene

Orthologs for WHRN Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for WHRN Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DFNB31 34 33
  • 99.05 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DFNB31 34 33
  • 89.11 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DFNB31 34 33
  • 87.4 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dfnb31 33
  • 85.71 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Whrn 34 16 33
  • 85.65 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DFNB31 34
  • 74 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DFNB31 34
  • 69 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves DFNB31 34 33
  • 73.45 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DFNB31 34
  • 60 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dfnb31 33
  • 61.17 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.32716 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii LOC100334777 33
  • 64.65 (n)
dfnb31a 34
  • 58 (a)
dfnb31b 34
  • 50 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta dysc 34
  • 21 (a)
Species where no ortholog for WHRN was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for WHRN Gene

Gene Tree for WHRN (if available)
Gene Tree for WHRN (if available)

Paralogs for WHRN Gene

Paralogs for WHRN Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with WHRN: view

Variants for WHRN Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for WHRN Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1005844900 uncertain-significance, Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss, Recessive, Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome 114,505,382(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs1030607999 uncertain-significance, Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss, Recessive, Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome 114,505,284(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs10759714 likely-benign, Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss, Recessive, Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome 114,505,311(-) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs111033459 conflicting-interpretations-of-pathogenicity, uncertain-significance, not specified, Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome, Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss, Recessive 114,424,385(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs117352600 benign, uncertain-significance, not specified, Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss, Recessive, Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome 114,424,398(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for WHRN Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv12859n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv33e196 CNV duplication 17116639
dgv7706n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv948n27 CNV gain 19166990
esv2677969 CNV deletion 23128226
esv27525 CNV gain 19812545
esv2762830 CNV loss 21179565
esv3573365 CNV loss 25503493
esv3621558 CNV loss 21293372
esv3621559 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1110055 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv615233 CNV gain 21841781
nsv615248 CNV loss 21841781
nsv6678 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv831693 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for WHRN Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 98% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 10.57; 91.23% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for WHRN Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WHRN Gene

Disorders for WHRN Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(14) MalaCards diseases for WHRN Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
deafness, autosomal recessive 31
  • dfnb31
usher syndrome, type iid
  • ush2d
usher syndrome type 2
  • ush2
autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural deafness type dfnb
  • autosomal recessive isolated neurosensory deafness type dfnb
usher syndrome
  • retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search WHRN in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Deafness, autosomal recessive, 31 (DFNB31) [MIM:607084]: A form of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Sensorineural deafness results from damage to the neural receptors of the inner ear, the nerve pathways to the brain, or the area of the brain that receives sound information. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11973626, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12833159, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15841483}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Usher syndrome 2D (USH2D) [MIM:611383]: USH is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by the association of retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural deafness. Age at onset and differences in auditory and vestibular function distinguish Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1), Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) and Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3). USH2 is characterized by congenital mild hearing impairment with normal vestibular responses. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17171570}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for WHRN

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with WHRN: view

No data available for Genatlas for WHRN Gene

Publications for WHRN Gene

  1. A novel gene for Usher syndrome type 2: mutations in the long isoform of whirlin are associated with retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing loss. (PMID: 17171570) Ebermann I … Bolz H (Human genetics 2007) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Defects in whirlin, a PDZ domain molecule involved in stereocilia elongation, cause deafness in the whirler mouse and families with DFNB31. (PMID: 12833159) Mburu P … Brown SD (Nature genetics 2003) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. The DFNB31 gene product whirlin connects to the Usher protein network in the cochlea and retina by direct association with USH2A and VLGR1. (PMID: 16434480) van Wijk E … Kremer H (Human molecular genetics 2006) 3 4 22 58
  4. Alterations of the CIB2 calcium- and integrin-binding protein cause Usher syndrome type 1J and nonsyndromic deafness DFNB48. (PMID: 23023331) Riazuddin S … Ahmed ZM (Nature genetics 2012) 3 4 58
  5. Sequence variants of the DFNB31 gene among Usher syndrome patients of diverse origin. (PMID: 20352026) Aller E … Millán JM (Molecular vision 2010) 3 22 58

Products for WHRN Gene

Sources for WHRN Gene

Loading form....