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Aliases for GAST Gene

Aliases for GAST Gene

  • Gastrin 2 3 3 5
  • Preprogastrin 2 3
  • GAS 3 4

External Ids for GAST Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for GAST Gene

  • GAS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for GAST Gene

  • GC17P037124
  • GC17P039868
  • GC17P035631

Summaries for GAST Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for GAST Gene

  • Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide forms, G34 and G17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for GAST Gene

GAST (Gastrin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GAST include Duodenal Ulcer and Gastritis. Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include hormone activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAST Gene

  • Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and water secretion in the stomach and intestine.

Gene Wiki entry for GAST Gene

Additional gene information for GAST Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for GAST Gene

Genomics for GAST Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for GAST Gene

Promoters and enhancers for GAST Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17I041712 Promoter 0.6 EPDnew 550.8 0.0 -19 0.1 KLF1 GAST GC17P041691 GC17P041692
GH17I041737 Enhancer 1.2 VISTA ENCODE 11.8 +27.0 27049 3.7 HDGF ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF766 HAP1 JUP GAST FKBP10 P3H4 KLHL11 KAT2A
GH17I041894 Enhancer 1 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.8 +183.3 183345 2.7 KLF17 RAD21 ZEB1 ZNF366 RCOR1 PAF1 RXRA CEBPB ZNF398 REST NT5C3B LOC108783654 KLHL11 KLHL10 ENSG00000267758 GAST CNP FKBP10 GC17M041900 PIR36467
GH17I041891 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 10 +179.8 179803 2 OSR2 FOXA2 NFIA HNF4A NR2F6 RARA ZNF18 EGR2 NT5C3B KLHL11 KLHL10 HAP1 RN7SL399P FKBP10 P3H4 CNP JUP GAST
GH17I041806 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 +94.9 94947 1.3 ZNF23 NFIC POLR2A MLLT1 ZNF501 PRDM2 ZBTB17 NT5C3B JUP KLHL10 KLHL11 ENSG00000259623 CCR10 GAST PIR33798 P3H4 PIR32942
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around GAST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the GAST gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for GAST Gene

Genomic Locations for GAST Gene
3,644 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for GAST Gene

Genes around GAST on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
GAST Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for GAST Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for GAST Gene

Proteins for GAST Gene

  • Protein details for GAST Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P78463
    • P78464

    Protein attributes for GAST Gene

    101 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    11394 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for GAST Gene

neXtProt entry for GAST Gene

Post-translational modifications for GAST Gene

  • Sulfation enhances proteolytic processing, and blocks peptide degradation. Levels of sulfation differ between proteolytically-cleaved gastrins. Thus, gastrin-6 is almost 73% sulfated, whereas the larger gastrins are less than 50% sulfated. Sulfation levels are also tissue-specific.
  • Two different processing pathways probably exist in antral G-cells. In the dominant pathway progastrin is cleaved at three sites resulting in two major bioactive gastrins, gastrin-34 and gastrin-17. In the putative alternative pathway, progastrin may be processed only at the most C-terminal dibasic site resulting in the synthesis of gastrin-71.

Other Protein References for GAST Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for GAST Gene

Domains & Families for GAST Gene

Gene Families for GAST Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for GAST Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for GAST Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the gastrin/cholecystokinin family.
  • Belongs to the gastrin/cholecystokinin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with GAST: view

Function for GAST Gene

Molecular function for GAST Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Gastrin stimulates the stomach mucosa to produce and secrete hydrochloric acid and the pancreas to secrete its digestive enzymes. It also stimulates smooth muscle contraction and increases blood circulation and water secretion in the stomach and intestine.

LifeMap Function Summary for GAST Gene

It affects the following cells:

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for GAST Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for GAST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005179 hormone activity IBA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 19664057
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAST: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with GAST: view

Animal Models for GAST Gene

MGI Knock Outs for GAST:

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for GAST Gene

Localization for GAST Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAST Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for GAST gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
nucleus 2
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for GAST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAST: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for GAST Gene

Pathways & Interactions for GAST Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with GAST: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for GAST Gene


Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for GAST Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA,NAS 7488110
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
GO:0010469 regulation of receptor activity IEA --
GO:0032094 response to food IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with GAST: view

Drugs & Compounds for GAST Gene

(89) Drugs for GAST Gene - From: DGIdb and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
G17DT Investigational Pharma 0

(55) Additional Compounds for GAST Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with GAST: view

Transcripts for GAST Gene

mRNA/cDNA for GAST Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(3) Additional mRNA sequences :
(26) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(1) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for GAST Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for GAST Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for GAST Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for GAST Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for GAST Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for GAST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (x48.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for GAST Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Stomach (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, and MOPED for GAST Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for GAST Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of GAST Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for GAST Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for GAST Gene

  • Stomach(4.9)
  • Intestine(3.8)
  • Pancreas(3)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Nervous system(2.7)
  • Gall bladder(2.5)
  • Liver(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with GAST: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for GAST Gene

Orthologs for GAST Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for GAST Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia GAST 33 34
  • 100 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia GAST 33 34
  • 87.54 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia GAST 33 34
  • 82.49 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Gast 33 16 34
  • 80.67 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Gast 33
  • 76.9 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia GAST 34
  • 61 (a)
Species where no ortholog for GAST was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for GAST Gene

Gene Tree for GAST (if available)
Gene Tree for GAST (if available)

Paralogs for GAST Gene

No data available for Paralogs for GAST Gene

Variants for GAST Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for GAST Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000619331 -- 41,710,715(+) T/C upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000881878 -- 41,711,373(+) G/A upstream_transcript_variant
rs1001488657 -- 41,712,510(+) G/C intron_variant
rs1003789706 -- 41,714,356(+) A/G intron_variant
rs1004226549 -- 41,714,015(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for GAST Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1146669 OTHER inversion 26484159
nsv1109074 CNV deletion 24896259
esv2758690 CNV gain+loss 17122850

Variation tolerance for GAST Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 54.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.60; 12.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for GAST Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for GAST Gene

Disorders for GAST Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(61) MalaCards diseases for GAST Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
duodenal ulcer
  • curling ulcer
  • acute gastric mucosal erosion
islet cell tumor
  • pancreatic endocrine carcinoma
  • hemorrhagic duodenitis
pernicious anemia
  • addison's anaemia
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search GAST in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for GAST

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with GAST: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for GAST Gene

Publications for GAST Gene

  1. Post-poly(Glu) cleavage and degradation modified by O-sulfated tyrosine: a novel post-translational processing mechanism. (PMID: 7530658) Rehfeld JF … Johnsen AH (The EMBO journal 1995) 3 4 22 58
  2. Identification of gastrin component I as gastrin-71. The largest possible bioactive progastrin product. (PMID: 8055952) Rehfeld JF … Johnsen AH (European journal of biochemistry 1994) 3 4 22 58
  3. Preprandial single oral dose of sitagliptin does not affect circulating ghrelin and gastrin levels in normal subjects. (PMID: 20145424) Huang CL … Weng SF (Pharmacology 2010) 3 22 58
  4. Gastrin transactivates the chromogranin A gene through MEK-1/ERK- and PKC-dependent phosphorylation of Sp1 and CREB. (PMID: 17889508) Cramer T … Höcker M (Cellular signalling 2008) 3 22 58
  5. Distinct linkage between post-translational processing and differential secretion of progastrin derivatives in endocrine cells. (PMID: 18057001) Bundgaard JR … Rehfeld JF (The Journal of biological chemistry 2008) 3 22 58

Products for GAST Gene

Sources for GAST Gene

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