Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for ALB Gene

Aliases for ALB Gene

  • Albumin 2 3 5
  • Serum Albumin 3
  • PRO0883 3
  • PRO0903 3
  • PRO1341 3
  • HSA 3

External Ids for ALB Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ALB Gene

  • GC04P074259
  • GC04P074509
  • GC04P074670
  • GC04P074736
  • GC04P074635
  • GC04P070083

Summaries for ALB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ALB Gene

  • This gene encodes the most abundant protein in human blood. This protein functions in the regulation of blood plasma colloid osmotic pressure and acts as a carrier protein for a wide range of endogenous molecules including hormones, fatty acids, and metabolites, as well as exogenous drugs. Additionally, this protein exhibits an esterase-like activity with broad substrate specificity. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein. A peptide derived from this protein, EPI-X4, is an endogenous inhibitor of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]

GeneCards Summary for ALB Gene

ALB (Albumin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with ALB include Analbuminemia and Hyperthyroxinemia, Familial Dysalbuminemic. Among its related pathways are Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors and Lipoprotein metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include enzyme binding and chaperone binding. An important paralog of this gene is AFP.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALB Gene

  • Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.

Gene Wiki entry for ALB Gene

Additional gene information for ALB Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for ALB Gene

Genomics for ALB Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for ALB Gene

Promoters and enhancers for ALB Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH04J073404 Promoter 1.2 EPDnew 650.4 +7.2 7154 0.1 ELF3 FOXA2 ZFP64 ARID4B ZSCAN9 RAD21 RARA YY1 CREM THAP11 ALB GC04P073422 GC04P073421
GH04J073344 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 4.6 -51.5 -51514 2 FOXA2 DMAP1 ETS1 YY1 ATF7 NFKBIZ RXRA REST PPARG NFIL3 AFP ENSG00000221639 ALB ENSG00000249976 GC04P073285 LOC102724832
GH04J073527 Enhancer 0.2 FANTOM5 4.5 +130.7 130707 0 AFM ALB LINC02499 ENSG00000249970
GH04J073189 Enhancer 0.5 FANTOM5 1.5 -207.7 -207708 0 MZF1 EHMT2 ZBTB33 ANKRD17 ENSG00000250220 ENSG00000221639 AFM ALB GC04P073141 LOC102724832
GH04J073388 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 0.4 -8.0 -8025 1.3 FOXA2 ARID4B ZSCAN9 RAD21 RARA ETS1 YY1 CREM MIXL1 KLF11 ALB ENSG00000249976
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ALB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ALB gene promoter:
  • TBP
  • C/EBPalpha
  • STAT2
  • STAT1
  • STAT1alpha
  • STAT1beta
  • STAT3
  • STAT4
  • STAT5A
  • STAT5B

Genomic Locations for ALB Gene

Genomic Locations for ALB Gene
24,299 bases
Plus strand
24,299 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for ALB Gene

Genes around ALB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ALB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ALB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ALB Gene

Proteins for ALB Gene

  • Protein details for ALB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Serum albumin
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • E7ESS9
    • O95574
    • P04277
    • Q13140
    • Q645G4
    • Q68DN5
    • Q6UXK4
    • Q86YG0
    • Q8IUK7
    • Q9P157
    • Q9P1I7
    • Q9UHS3
    • Q9UJZ0

    Protein attributes for ALB Gene

    609 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    69367 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    • Sequence=AAF22034.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAF69644.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAG35503.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Translation N-terminally extended.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ALB Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for ALB Gene


neXtProt entry for ALB Gene

Post-translational modifications for ALB Gene

  • Kenitra variant is partially O-glycosylated at Thr-620. It has two new disulfide bonds Cys-600 to Cys-602 and Cys-601 to Cys-606.
  • Glycated in diabetic patients.
  • Phosphorylated by FAM20C in the extracellular medium.
  • Acetylated on Lys-223 by acetylsalicylic acid.
  • Glycosylation at Lys597, Lys569, Lys560, Lys558, posLast=549549, posLast=518518, Lys468, Lys463, posLast=444444, Lys437, Lys402, Lys375, Lys347, posLast=342342, Lys341, Lys337, posLast=305305, Lys300, posLast=257257, posLast=249249, Lys223, posLast=186186, Lys161, Lys75, and Lys36
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=229229
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Glycosylation from GlyConnect
    • ALBU_HUMAN (559)

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for ALB Gene

Domains & Families for ALB Gene

Gene Families for ALB Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ALB Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.
  • Belongs to the ALB/AFP/VDB family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ALB: view

Function for ALB Gene

Molecular function for ALB Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
albumin,putative down-regulated c-Myc target gene,

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ALB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ALB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003677 DNA binding IDA 16405401
GO:0005504 fatty acid binding NAS 9731778
GO:0005507 copper ion binding NAS 14726550
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 16099937
GO:0008144 drug binding NAS 10940303
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ALB: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for ALB Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for ALB Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ALB:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ALB

miRNA for ALB Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ALB

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ALB

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ALB Gene

Localization for ALB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALB Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ALB gene
Compartment Confidence
extracellular 5
nucleus 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
golgi apparatus 5
cytosol 4
plasma membrane 3
cytoskeleton 3
mitochondrion 3
lysosome 3
peroxisome 2
endosome 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Endoplasmic reticulum (4)
  • Golgi apparatus (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ALB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IEA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space IDA,IEA 19996109
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA 21630459
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALB: view

Pathways & Interactions for ALB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ALB: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ALB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001895 retina homeostasis HEP 23580065
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0006898 receptor-mediated endocytosis TAS --
GO:0009267 cellular response to starvation IDA 16245148
GO:0015721 bile acid and bile salt transport TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ALB: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for ALB Gene

Drugs & Compounds for ALB Gene

(325) Drugs for ALB Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Ibuprofen Approved Pharma Channel blocker, Inhibition, Inhibitor, Carrier 547
Vandetanib Approved April 2011 Pharma Carrier, binder VEGFR, EGFR, and RET inhibitor, EGFR Inhibitors, Kinase Inhibitors, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors 0
Estrone Approved Pharma Agonist, Carrier Estrogenic hormone 22
Estrone sulfate Approved Pharma Carrier 0
Liothyronine Approved, Vet_approved Pharma Carrier 0

(66) Additional Compounds for ALB Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ALB: view

Transcripts for ALB Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ALB Gene

(1) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(26) Additional mRNA sequences :
(3197) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(20) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for ALB Gene

Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for ALB

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ALB Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6a · 6b · 6c ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11a · 11b · 11c ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a ·
SP1: - - -
SP2: - - - - - - - - - - -
SP3: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP4: - - - - - - - - - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: -
SP7: - - -
SP8: - -

ExUns: 14b ^ 15 ^ 16a · 16b

Relevant External Links for ALB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for ALB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for ALB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for ALB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x51.9).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ALB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Nasopharynx (6.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for ALB Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for ALB Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of ALB Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ALB Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for ALB Gene:

Tissue specificity: Plasma.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ALB Gene

  • Blood(5)
  • Heart(5)
  • Liver(5)
  • Spleen(5)
  • Kidney(4.9)
  • Muscle(4.9)
  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Urine(4.8)
  • Lung(4.7)
  • Intestine(4.2)
  • Gall bladder(3.9)
  • Pancreas(3.7)
  • Adrenal gland(3.6)
  • Eye(3.6)
  • Skin(3.2)
  • Stomach(2.9)
  • Bone marrow(2.8)
  • Thyroid gland(2.8)
  • Lymph node(2.7)
  • Saliva(2.5)
  • Bone(2.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ALB Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • jaw
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • skull
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • heart
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
  • duodenum
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • liver
  • small intestine
  • pelvis
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
  • blood vessel
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ALB: view

Orthologs for ALB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for ALB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ALB 34 33
  • 99.34 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ALB 34 33
  • 82.43 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ALB 34 33
  • 82.32 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Alb 16 34 33
  • 77.08 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Alb 33
  • 76.26 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ALB 34
  • 66 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ALB 34
  • 59 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ALB 34 33
  • 60.37 (n)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cars2 33
  • 54.04 (n)
Species where no ortholog for ALB was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for ALB Gene

Gene Tree for ALB (if available)
Gene Tree for ALB (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ALB: view image

Paralogs for ALB Gene

Paralogs for ALB Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for ALB Gene using alignment to 8 proteins:

  • H0YA55_HUMAN
  • H7C013_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ALB: view

Variants for ALB Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ALB Gene

A variant structure of albumin could lead to increased binding of zinc resulting in an asymptomatic augmentation of zinc concentration in the blood. The sequence shown is that of variant albumin A.

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for ALB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 04 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs11538204 uncertain-significance, Hyperthyroxinemia, dysalbuminemic 73,421,156(+) G/A/T 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs139400924 uncertain-significance, Hyperthyroxinemia, dysalbuminemic 73,418,093(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs141131597 uncertain-significance, Hyperthyroxinemia, dysalbuminemic 73,419,646(+) C/T intron_variant
rs141733599 other, ALBUMIN LARINO 73,404,406(+) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs142299078 uncertain-significance, Hyperthyroxinemia, dysalbuminemic 73,418,306(+) A/G coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ALB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv956e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3310394 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3346976 CNV insertion 20981092

Variation tolerance for ALB Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.05; 21.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ALB Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

Disorders for ALB Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(256) MalaCards diseases for ALB Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search ALB in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Hyperthyroxinemia, familial dysalbuminemic (FDAH) [MIM:615999]: A disorder characterized by abnormally elevated levels of total serum thyroxine (T4) in euthyroid patients. It is due to abnormal serum albumin that binds T4 with enhanced affinity. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:7852505, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8048949, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9329347, ECO:0000269 PubMed:9589637}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Analbuminemia (ANALBA) [MIM:616000]: A rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the presence of a very low amount of circulating serum albumin. Affected individuals manifest mild edema, hypotension, fatigue, and, occasionally, lower body lipodystrophy (mainly in adult females). The most common biochemical finding is hyperlipidemia, with a significant increase in the total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but normal concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:8134387}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for ALB

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with ALB: view

No data available for Genatlas for ALB Gene

Publications for ALB Gene

  1. A nucleotide insertion and frameshift cause albumin Kénitra, an extended and O-glycosylated mutant of human serum albumin with two additional disulfide bridges. (PMID: 11168369) Minchiotti L … Galliano M (European journal of biochemistry 2001) 3 4 22 58
  2. Crystal structure of human serum albumin at 2.5 A resolution. (PMID: 10388840) Sugio S … Kobayashi K (Protein engineering 1999) 3 4 22 58
  3. Protein and DNA sequence analysis of a 'private' genetic variant: albumin Ortonovo (Glu-505-->Lys). (PMID: 7902134) Galliano M … Putnam FW (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1993) 3 4 22 58
  4. Two alloalbumins with identical electrophoretic mobility are produced by differently charged amino acid substitutions. (PMID: 1347703) Minchiotti L … Porta F (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1992) 3 4 22 58
  5. Genetic variants of serum albumin in Americans and Japanese. (PMID: 1946412) Madison J … Putnam FW (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991) 3 4 22 58

Products for ALB Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for ALB

Sources for ALB Gene