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Aliases for SLC22A12 Gene

Aliases for SLC22A12 Gene

  • Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12 2 3 3 5
  • Solute Carrier Family 22 (Organic Anion/Cation Transporter), Member 12 2 3
  • Solute Carrier Family 22 (Organic Anion/Urate Transporter), Member 12 2 3
  • Organic Anion Transporter 4-Like Protein 3 4
  • Renal-Specific Transporter 3 4
  • Urate Anion Exchanger 1 3 4
  • URAT1 3 4
  • RST 3 4
  • Urate Transporter 1 3
  • OAT4L 3
  • OATL4 4

External Ids for SLC22A12 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SLC22A12 Gene

  • GC11P066873
  • GC11P066039
  • GC11P064099
  • GC11P064100
  • GC11P064115
  • GC11P064359
  • GC11P060685

Summaries for SLC22A12 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SLC22A12 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, and it acts as a urate transporter to regulate urate levels in blood. This protein is an integral membrane protein primarily found in epithelial cells of the proximal tubule of the kidney. An elevated level of serum urate, hyperuricemia, is associated with increased incidences of gout, and mutations in this gene cause renal hypouricemia type 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

GeneCards Summary for SLC22A12 Gene

SLC22A12 (Solute Carrier Family 22 Member 12) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SLC22A12 include Hypouricemia, Renal, 1 and Hyperuricemia. Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Uricosurics Pathway, Pharmacodynamics. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include PDZ domain binding and urate transmembrane transporter activity. An important paralog of this gene is SLC22A11.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC22A12 Gene

  • Required for efficient urate re-absorption in the kidney. Regulates blood urate levels. Mediates saturable urate uptake by facilitating the exchange of urate against organic anions.

Gene Wiki entry for SLC22A12 Gene

Additional gene information for SLC22A12 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SLC22A12 Gene

Genomics for SLC22A12 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SLC22A12 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SLC22A12 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J064591 Promoter 0.7 EPDnew 650.7 +0.6 560 0.1 HLF CEBPA SLC22A12 GC11M064637 GC11M064638
GH11J064447 Enhancer 1.3 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 11.1 -141.7 -141699 2.5 PKNOX1 ATF1 FOXA2 SIN3A IRF4 ZNF48 GLIS2 ARID2 ZNF143 KLF7 LOC100996455 LOC105369342 POLA2 ENSG00000231492 RPS16P6 ENSG00000203520 ZFPL1 SAC3D1 SF1 NRXN2
GH11J064809 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 6.3 +219.8 219778 2.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A YY1 ZNF766 ZNF207 ZNF143 MEN1 SLC22A12 RASGRP2 MAP4K2
GH11J064499 Enhancer 0.9 FANTOM5 Ensembl 11.2 -90.9 -90902 0.7 BRD4 ZNF639 ZNF197 L3MBTL2 TEAD2 MAX EP300 ZNF395 ZNF766 POLR2A LOC105369342 NRXN2 SLC22A12 ENSG00000237410 RASGRP2 GC11M064457
GH11J064438 Enhancer 0.8 FANTOM5 ENCODE 11.6 -151.5 -151528 1.3 SMARCE1 RXRA DPF2 ZNF121 SP1 ZNF217 CTBP1 ESR1 HNF4A SLC22A12 NRXN2 SLC22A11 MIR1237 OTUB1 GC11P064445 ENSG00000231492
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SLC22A12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SLC22A12 gene promoter:
  • GR-beta
  • GR-alpha
  • GR
  • Bach1

Genomic Locations for SLC22A12 Gene

Genomic Locations for SLC22A12 Gene
11,713 bases
Plus strand
11,708 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SLC22A12 Gene

Genes around SLC22A12 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SLC22A12 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SLC22A12 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SLC22A12 Gene

Proteins for SLC22A12 Gene

  • Protein details for SLC22A12 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Solute carrier family 22 member 12
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B7WPG1
    • G3XAN7
    • Q19PF7
    • Q19PF8
    • Q19PF9
    • Q19PG0
    • Q6UXW3
    • Q96DT2

    Protein attributes for SLC22A12 Gene

    553 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59630 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with PDZK1.
    • Sequence=BAB68364.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=84, 136; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Alternative splice isoforms for SLC22A12 Gene


neXtProt entry for SLC22A12 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SLC22A12 Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=102102 and posLast=5656
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

  • Boster Bio Antibodies for SLC22A12
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology (SCBT) Antibodies for SLC22A12

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SLC22A12 Gene

Domains & Families for SLC22A12 Gene

Gene Families for SLC22A12 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for SLC22A12 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for SLC22A12 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the major facilitator (TC 2.A.1) superfamily. Organic cation transporter (TC 2.A.1.19) family.
  • Belongs to the major facilitator (TC 2.A.1) superfamily. Organic cation transporter (TC 2.A.1.19) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SLC22A12: view

Function for SLC22A12 Gene

Molecular function for SLC22A12 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Required for efficient urate re-absorption in the kidney. Regulates blood urate levels. Mediates saturable urate uptake by facilitating the exchange of urate against organic anions.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SLC22A12 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SLC22A12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005452 inorganic anion exchanger activity IBA --
GO:0008514 organic anion transmembrane transporter activity IBA --
GO:0015143 urate transmembrane transporter activity TAS --
GO:0015347 sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity IBA --
GO:0022857 transmembrane transporter activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC22A12: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SLC22A12: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for SLC22A12 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for SLC22A12 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for SLC22A12:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SLC22A12

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SLC22A12

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SLC22A12 Gene

Localization for SLC22A12 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC22A12 Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein. Note=Detected in the luminal membrane of the epithelium of renal proximal tubules.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SLC22A12 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SLC22A12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IDA 12024214
GO:0016324 apical plasma membrane IDA 12024214
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC22A12: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for SLC22A12 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SLC22A12 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SLC22A12: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SLC22A12 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006811 ion transport IEA --
GO:0015698 inorganic anion transport IEA --
GO:0015711 organic anion transport IBA --
GO:0015747 urate transport IDA 12024214
GO:0019725 cellular homeostasis NAS 15772301
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SLC22A12: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SLC22A12 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SLC22A12 Gene

(14) Drugs for SLC22A12 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Lesinurad Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor URAT1 inhibitor 21
Losartan Approved Pharma Antagonist, Transporter, inhibitor 295
Probenecid Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, Inhibitor, Activator, Transporter, inhibitor 35
Sulfinpyrazone Approved Pharma Target, inhibitor 0
Cytarabine Approved, Investigational Pharma 1166
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SLC22A12: view

Transcripts for SLC22A12 Gene

Unigene Clusters for SLC22A12 Gene

Solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/urate transporter), member 12:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for SLC22A12

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SLC22A12 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c · 2d ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12
SP1: - -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -

Relevant External Links for SLC22A12 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SLC22A12 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SLC22A12 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for SLC22A12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Kidney - Cortex (x52.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SLC22A12 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Urine (55.8) and Liver, secretome (8.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for SLC22A12 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SLC22A12 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SLC22A12 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SLC22A12 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SLC22A12 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Detected in kidney (at protein level). Detected in fetal and adult kidney. Detected in epithelial cells of proximal tubules in renal cortex.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SLC22A12 Gene

  • Kidney(4.7)
  • Intestine(4.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SLC22A12 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • head
  • heart
  • duodenum
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • stomach
  • rectum
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SLC22A12: view

Orthologs for SLC22A12 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for SLC22A12 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SLC22A12 34 33
  • 99.04 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SLC22A12 34 33
  • 85.81 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SLC22A12 34 33
  • 79.99 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Slc22a12 33
  • 78.24 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Slc22a12 16 34 33
  • 78.06 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 49 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG8654 35
  • 34 (a)
CG6126 35
  • 28 (a)
Species where no ortholog for SLC22A12 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for SLC22A12 Gene

Gene Tree for SLC22A12 (if available)
Gene Tree for SLC22A12 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SLC22A12: view image

Paralogs for SLC22A12 Gene

(18) SIMAP similar genes for SLC22A12 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • B5ME56_HUMAN
  • Q05CF4_HUMAN
  • Q19PG1_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SLC22A12: view

Variants for SLC22A12 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SLC22A12 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1047976958 renal 1 (RHUC1) [MIM:220150] 64,599,701(+) G/A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs11231825 benign, Familial renal hypouricemia 64,592,802(+) T/C 5_prime_UTR_variant, coding_sequence_variant, synonymous_variant
rs116679934 likely-benign, Familial renal hypouricemia 64,598,512(+) T/C intron_variant
rs121907892 pathogenic, Familial renal hypouricemia 64,593,747(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, stop_gained
rs121907893 pathogenic, Familial renal hypouricemia, Hypouricemia renal 1 (RHUC1) [MIM:220150] 64,593,548(+) C/G/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SLC22A12 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv1965n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv2422214 CNV deletion 17116639
esv2744627 CNV deletion 23290073
nsv1113399 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1122630 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1142115 CNV tandem duplication 24896259
nsv1149041 CNV insertion 26484159
nsv528506 CNV loss 19592680
nsv555197 CNV loss 21841781
nsv818842 CNV gain 17921354
nsv832188 CNV gain 17160897

Variation tolerance for SLC22A12 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 50.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.14; 38.86% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SLC22A12 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SLC22A12 Gene

Disorders for SLC22A12 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for SLC22A12 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypouricemia, renal, 1
  • rhuc1
  • blood urate raized
  • articular gout
acute kidney failure
  • acute renal failure
  • haemopericardium
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards


  • Hypouricemia renal 1 (RHUC1) [MIM:220150]: A disorder characterized by impaired uric acid reabsorption at the apical membrane of proximal renal tubule cells, and high urinary urate excretion. Patients often appear asymptomatic, but may be subject to exercise-induced acute renal failure, chronic renal dysfunction and nephrolithiasis. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12024214, ECO:0000269 PubMed:14694169, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15327384, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15634722, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15912381, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16837472, ECO:0000269 PubMed:26418379}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for SLC22A12

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SLC22A12: view

No data available for Genatlas for SLC22A12 Gene

Publications for SLC22A12 Gene

  1. Molecular analysis of the SLC22A12 (URAT1) gene in patients with primary gout. (PMID: 16837472) Vázquez-Mellado J … Burgos-Vargas R (Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 2007) 3 4 22 44 58
  2. Association of the human urate transporter 1 with reduced renal uric acid excretion and hyperuricemia in a German Caucasian population. (PMID: 16385546) Graessler J … Schroeder HE (Arthritis and rheumatism 2006) 3 4 22 44 58
  3. Common polymorphisms influencing serum uric acid levels contribute to susceptibility to gout, but not to coronary artery disease. (PMID: 19890391) Stark K … Hengstenberg C (PloS one 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. T6092C polymorphism of SLC22A12 gene is associated with serum uric acid concentrations in Korean male subjects. (PMID: 18824160) Jang WC … Kim SK (Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2008) 3 22 44 58
  5. Prevalence of hypouricaemia and SLC22A12 mutations in healthy Korean subjects. (PMID: 19019168) Lee JH … Cheong HI (Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) 2008) 3 22 44 58

Products for SLC22A12 Gene

Sources for SLC22A12 Gene

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