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Aliases for CYGB Gene

Aliases for CYGB Gene

  • Cytoglobin 2 3 3 5
  • Stellate Cell Activation-Associated Protein 2 3 4
  • Histoglobin 2 3 4
  • STAP 3 4
  • HGB 3
  • HGb 4

External Ids for CYGB Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for CYGB Gene

  • GC17M074357
  • GC17M077515
  • GC17M074987
  • GC17M075120
  • GC17M072035
  • GC17M074523
  • GC17M069951

Summaries for CYGB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for CYGB Gene

  • This gene encodes a globin protein found in vertebrate cells. The encoded protein is described as a hexacoordinate hemoglobin which binds ligand differently from the pentacoordinate hemoglobins involved in oxygen transport, and may be involved in protection during oxidative stress. This gene is located on chromosome 17 in the same region as a retinal gene which is mutated in progressive rod-cone degeneration, but in the opposite orientation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GeneCards Summary for CYGB Gene

CYGB (Cytoglobin) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with CYGB include Retinitis Pigmentosa 36 and Ancylostomiasis. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and eNOS activation and regulation. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include iron ion binding and oxygen binding. An important paralog of this gene is MB.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYGB Gene

  • May have a protective function during conditions of oxidative stress. May be involved in intracellular oxygen storage or transfer.

Gene Wiki entry for CYGB Gene

Additional gene information for CYGB Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for CYGB Gene

Genomics for CYGB Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for CYGB Gene

Promoters and enhancers for CYGB Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH17J076555 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 650.7 -1.9 -1861 8.1 CLOCK ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ZNF610 SNHG16 ENSG00000267546 CYGB SNORD1B SNORD1C PIR59539 PIR56918 GC17P076624 GC17P076621 GC17P076618
GH17J076548 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.4 +7.4 7372 4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT MLX ARID4B YBX1 DMAP1 ZNF48 SLC30A9 ENSG00000267543 ENSG00000272386 CYGB UNK SRSF2 ENSG00000266980 MFSD11 SEPT9 METTL23 TRIM65
GH17J076536 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.4 +19.9 19911 1.5 RCOR1 KDM1A REST EZH2 CYGB GC17P076540 PRCD
GH17J076527 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.9 +27.4 27429 6.3 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B ZBTB7B YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B PRCD UNK ENSG00000267543 SRSF2 SRP68 TRIM65 MFSD11 ENSG00000266980 CYGB METTL23
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around CYGB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the CYGB gene promoter:
  • Sp1
  • ZIC2
  • Egr-2
  • GATA-3
  • HNF-3beta
  • XBP-1
  • NF-kappaB1
  • RelA

Genomic Locations for CYGB Gene

Genomic Locations for CYGB Gene
30,250 bases
Minus strand
23,820 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for CYGB Gene

Genes around CYGB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
CYGB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for CYGB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for CYGB Gene

Proteins for CYGB Gene

  • Protein details for CYGB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q541Y7
    • Q8N2X5

    Protein attributes for CYGB Gene

    190 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    21405 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for CYGB Gene

neXtProt entry for CYGB Gene

Post-translational modifications for CYGB Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for CYGB Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for CYGB Gene

Domains & Families for CYGB Gene

Gene Families for CYGB Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Transporters

Protein Domains for CYGB Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CYGB Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the globin family.
  • Belongs to the globin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with CYGB: view

Function for CYGB Gene

Molecular function for CYGB Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
May have a protective function during conditions of oxidative stress. May be involved in intracellular oxygen storage or transfer.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for CYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004096 catalase activity IEA --
GO:0004601 peroxidase activity IEA,ISS 11320098
GO:0005344 oxygen carrier activity IEA,NAS 11919282
GO:0005506 iron ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 25416956
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYGB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with CYGB: view

Animal Models for CYGB Gene

MGI Knock Outs for CYGB:
  • Cygb Cygb<tm1Nka>
  • Cygb Cygb<tm1b(EUCOMM)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CYGB

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for CYGB Gene

Localization for CYGB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYGB Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for CYGB gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nuclear speckles (4)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for CYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA --
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016607 nuclear speck IDA --
GO:0043005 neuron projection IEA --
GO:0043025 neuronal cell body IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYGB: view

Pathways & Interactions for CYGB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with CYGB: view

Pathways by source for CYGB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for CYGB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001666 response to hypoxia IEA --
GO:0006979 response to oxidative stress ISS 11320098
GO:0010764 negative regulation of fibroblast migration IEA --
GO:0015671 oxygen transport TAS,IEA --
GO:0019395 fatty acid oxidation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with CYGB: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for CYGB Gene

Drugs & Compounds for CYGB Gene

(9) Drugs for CYGB Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
3,4-bis(7-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxylic acid Experimental Pharma Target 0
3,4-DI-1H-INDOL-3-YL-1H-PYRROLE-2,5-DICARBOXYLIC ACID Experimental Pharma Target 0
heme Pharma Agonist 0

(2) Additional Compounds for CYGB Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with CYGB: view

Transcripts for CYGB Gene

mRNA/cDNA for CYGB Gene

Unigene Clusters for CYGB Gene

Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for CYGB

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for CYGB Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for CYGB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for CYGB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for CYGB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for CYGB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Heart - Atrial Appendage (x4.7).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CYGB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone marrow stromal cell (7.4) and Pancreas (6.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for CYGB Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for CYGB Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of CYGB Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for CYGB Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for CYGB Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed. Highest expression in heart, stomach, bladder and small intestine.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for CYGB Gene

  • Heart(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Kidney(4.4)
  • Blood(2.9)
  • Liver(2.3)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Lung(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with CYGB: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for CYGB Gene

Orthologs for CYGB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for CYGB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia CYGB 34 33
  • 99.3 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia CYGB 34 33
  • 94.87 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia CYGB 34 33
  • 94.04 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Cygb 16 34 33
  • 92.81 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Cygb 33
  • 91.05 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia CYGB 34
  • 85 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia CYGB 34
  • 57 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves CYGB 34 33
  • 78.65 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia CYGB 34
  • 65 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia cygb 33
  • 71.35 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii cygb2 34 33
  • 68.38 (n)
CYGB (2 of 3) 34
  • 57 (a)
cygb1 34
  • 45 (a)
cygb 33
Species where no ortholog for CYGB was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for CYGB Gene

Gene Tree for CYGB (if available)
Gene Tree for CYGB (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for CYGB: view image

Paralogs for CYGB Gene

Paralogs for CYGB Gene

(10) SIMAP similar genes for CYGB Gene using alignment to 3 proteins:

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with CYGB: view

Variants for CYGB Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for CYGB Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000157197 uncertain-significance, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Recessive 76,544,255(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs117784164 uncertain-significance, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Recessive 76,544,582(-) C/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs121918369 pathogenic, Retinitis pigmentosa 36 76,540,146(-) G/A genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs139602114 uncertain-significance, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Recessive 76,545,130(-) C/G genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs144319284 uncertain-significance, Retinitis Pigmentosa, Recessive 76,544,240(-) C/A/G/T genic_upstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for CYGB Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1058263 CNV gain 25217958
nsv833549 CNV gain 17160897
nsv952370 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for CYGB Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 27.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 11.51; 92.93% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for CYGB Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for CYGB Gene

Disorders for CYGB Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for CYGB Gene - From: DISEASES and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
retinitis pigmentosa 36
  • rp36
  • ancylostoma duodenale infection
retinitis pigmentosa
  • retinitis pigmentosa 1
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search CYGB in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for CYGB

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with CYGB: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for CYGB Gene

Publications for CYGB Gene

  1. Cytoglobin: a novel globin type ubiquitously expressed in vertebrate tissues. (PMID: 11919282) Burmester T … Hankeln T (Molecular biology and evolution 2002) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. High-resolution structure of human cytoglobin: identification of extra N- and C-termini and a new dimerization mode. (PMID: 16699195) Makino M … Shiro Y (Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 2006) 3 4 22 58
  3. Crystal structure of cytoglobin: the fourth globin type discovered in man displays heme hexa-coordination. (PMID: 15095869) de Sanctis D … Bolognesi M (Journal of molecular biology 2004) 3 4 22 58
  4. Structural basis of human cytoglobin for ligand binding. (PMID: 15165856) Sugimoto H … Shiro Y (Journal of molecular biology 2004) 3 4 22 58
  5. Cytoglobin is expressed in the vasculature and regulates cell respiration and proliferation via nitric oxide dioxygenation. (PMID: 19147491) Halligan KE … Jourd'heuil D (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 22 58

Products for CYGB Gene

Sources for CYGB Gene

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