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Aliases for MRPL28 Gene

Aliases for MRPL28 Gene

  • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L28 2 3 5
  • Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognised By Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes 2 3
  • Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized By T-Lymphocytes 3 4
  • Mitochondrial Large Ribosomal Subunit Protein BL28m 3 4
  • Melanoma Antigen P15 3 4
  • MRP-L28 3 4
  • MAAT1 3 4
  • L28mt 3 4
  • 39S Ribosomal Protein L28, Mitochondrial 3
  • P15 3

External Ids for MRPL28 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for MRPL28 Gene

  • MAAT1

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for MRPL28 Gene

  • GC00U990874
  • GC16M000438

Summaries for MRPL28 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for MRPL28 Gene

  • Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein, a part of which was originally isolated by its ability to recognize tyrosinase in an HLA-A24-restricted fashion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for MRPL28 Gene

MRPL28 (Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein L28) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Viral mRNA Translation and Organelle biogenesis and maintenance. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include structural constituent of ribosome.

Gene Wiki entry for MRPL28 Gene

Additional gene information for MRPL28 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for MRPL28 Gene

Genomics for MRPL28 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for MRPL28 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for MRPL28 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH16J000369 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 674 +0.1 55 2.3 HDGF PKNOX1 ATF1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A NCOA2 ETS1 GLIS2 E2F8 MRPL28 TMEM8A WDR90 WDR24 AXIN1
GH16J000371 Enhancer 0.4 ENCODE 650.7 -1.1 -1132 0.1 SCRT1 SCRT2 ZIC2 MRPL28 TMEM8A ENSG00000236829
GH16J000378 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 19.4 -11.2 -11170 6.1 PKNOX1 ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ETS1 SLC30A9 GLIS2 FOS TMEM8A ENSG00000236829 LOC100134368 MRPL28 ENSG00000228779 LOC105371036
GH16J000351 Promoter/Enhancer 2.2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 8.9 +16.7 16664 5.8 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 TCF12 GLIS2 ZNF143 KLF13 SP3 AXIN1 TMEM8A UBE2I CHTF18 ENSG00000268836 WASH4P WDR24 LUC7L ENSG00000269482 WDR90
GH16J000358 Enhancer 1.4 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 13.1 +8.5 8522 6.2 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 ZNF48 ZNF143 AXIN1 TMEM8A MRPL28 ARHGDIG
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around MRPL28 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the MRPL28 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • c-Fos
  • c-Jun
  • COUP

Genomic Locations for MRPL28 Gene

Genomic Locations for MRPL28 Gene
3,186 bases
Minus strand
3,186 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for MRPL28 Gene

Genes around MRPL28 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
MRPL28 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for MRPL28 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for MRPL28 Gene

Proteins for MRPL28 Gene

  • Protein details for MRPL28 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    39S ribosomal protein L28, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RCM4
    • D3DU46
    • Q4TT39
    • Q96S26
    • Q9BQD8
    • Q9BR04

    Protein attributes for MRPL28 Gene

    256 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30157 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (mt-LSU). Mature mammalian 55S mitochondrial ribosomes consist of a small (28S) and a large (39S) subunit. The 28S small subunit contains a 12S ribosomal RNA (12S mt-rRNA) and 30 different proteins. The 39S large subunit contains a 16S rRNA (16S mt-rRNA), a copy of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (mt-tRNA(Val)), which plays an integral structural role, and 52 different proteins (PubMed:11551941, PubMed:25278503). Interacts with OXA1L.
    • Potentially represents an important therapeutic reagent for HLA-A24 patients. This antigen is recognized by tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) 1290 in the context of HLA-A24.
    • Sequence=AAC50181.1; Type=Erroneous initiation; Evidence={ECO:0000305}; Sequence=AAK61226.1; Type=Erroneous gene model prediction; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for MRPL28 Gene

neXtProt entry for MRPL28 Gene

Post-translational modifications for MRPL28 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys106
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for MRPL28 Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for MRPL28 Gene

Domains & Families for MRPL28 Gene

Gene Families for MRPL28 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Ribosomal proteins

Protein Domains for MRPL28 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bL28 family.
  • Belongs to the bacterial ribosomal protein bL28 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with MRPL28: view

Function for MRPL28 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for MRPL28 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for MRPL28 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003723 RNA binding HDA 22658674
GO:0003735 structural constituent of ribosome IEA,NAS 11543634
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 20601428
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL28: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with MRPL28: view

miRNA for MRPL28 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target MRPL28

Clone Products

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for MRPL28 Gene

Localization for MRPL28 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL28 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for MRPL28 gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
cytosol 5
nucleus 2

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for MRPL28 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA,IDA --
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS --
GO:0005761 mitochondrial ribosome NAS 11543634
GO:0005762 mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit IDA 25278503
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL28: view

Pathways & Interactions for MRPL28 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with MRPL28: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for MRPL28 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation NAS 11543634
GO:0070125 mitochondrial translational elongation TAS --
GO:0070126 mitochondrial translational termination TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with MRPL28: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for MRPL28 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for MRPL28 Gene

(2) Drugs for MRPL28 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials

(2) Additional Compounds for MRPL28 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with MRPL28: view

Transcripts for MRPL28 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for MRPL28 Gene

Unigene Clusters for MRPL28 Gene

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for MRPL28 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for MRPL28 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for MRPL28 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for MRPL28 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for MRPL28 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (25.1), Bone marrow stromal cell (8.0), and Bone (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for MRPL28 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for MRPL28 Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of MRPL28 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for MRPL28 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for MRPL28 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Found in a variety of normal tissues including spleen, testes, thymus, liver, kidney, brain, adrenal, lung and retinal tissue.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for MRPL28 Gene

  • Lung(4.5)
  • Muscle(4.4)
  • Nervous system(3.4)
  • Skin(3.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with MRPL28: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for MRPL28 Gene

Orthologs for MRPL28 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for MRPL28 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia MRPL28 33
  • 93.31 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia MRPL28 34 33
  • 85.04 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Mrpl28 16 34 33
  • 83.46 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Mrpl28 33
  • 83.07 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia MRPL28 34
  • 81 (a)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia MRPL28 34 33
  • 78.61 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia MRPL28 34
  • 56 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves -- 34
  • 68 (a)
MRPL28 34
  • 67 (a)
-- 34
  • 62 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia MRPL28 34
  • 64 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia mrpl28 33
  • 62.98 (n)
Str.15480 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii mrpl28 34 33
  • 68.65 (n)
wufa96b11 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10905 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta mRpL28 34
  • 28 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea mrpl-28 34 33
  • 47.67 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.3134 34
  • 40 (a)
Species where no ortholog for MRPL28 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for MRPL28 Gene

Gene Tree for MRPL28 (if available)
Gene Tree for MRPL28 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for MRPL28: view image

Paralogs for MRPL28 Gene

No data available for Paralogs for MRPL28 Gene

Variants for MRPL28 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for MRPL28 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 16 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs149440376 likely-benign, Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum 370,043(-) C/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs181590179 likely-benign, Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum 368,381(-) C/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1000412168 -- 369,460(-) T/A intron_variant
rs1001531675 -- 368,877(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1001585924 -- 369,302(-) C/G intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for MRPL28 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv32n68 CNV loss 17160897
dgv4809n54 CNV loss 21841781
esv1353875 CNV insertion 17803354
esv2422427 CNV duplication 17116639
esv3637563 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637564 CNV gain 21293372
esv3637569 CNV loss 21293372
esv3637570 CNV gain 21293372
nsv513440 CNV insertion 21212237
nsv517471 CNV loss 19592680
nsv570954 CNV loss 21841781
nsv827478 CNV gain 20364138
nsv952897 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for MRPL28 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 65.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 7.09; 80.44% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for MRPL28 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for MRPL28 Gene

Disorders for MRPL28 Gene

Additional Disease Information for MRPL28

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for MRPL28 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for MRPL28 Gene

Publications for MRPL28 Gene

  1. Oxygen consumption can regulate the growth of tumors, a new perspective on the Warburg effect. (PMID: 19753307) Chen Y … Denko NC (PloS one 2009) 2 3 22 58
  2. The large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Analysis of the complement of ribosomal proteins present. (PMID: 11551941) Koc EC … Spremulli LL (The Journal of biological chemistry 2001) 2 3 4 58
  3. Cloning of a new gene encoding an antigen recognized by melanoma-specific HLA-A24-restricted tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. (PMID: 7751637) Robbins PF … Rosenberg SA (Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1995) 3 4 22 58
  4. Structure of the large ribosomal subunit from human mitochondria. (PMID: 25278503) Brown A … Ramakrishnan V (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2014) 3 4 58
  5. Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression. (PMID: 20877624) Hendrickson SL … O'Brien SJ (PloS one 2010) 3 44 58

Products for MRPL28 Gene

Sources for MRPL28 Gene

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