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Aliases for SAE1 Gene

Aliases for SAE1 Gene

  • SUMO1 Activating Enzyme Subunit 1 2 3 5
  • Ubiquitin-Like 1-Activating Enzyme E1A 3 4
  • UBLE1A 3 4
  • AOS1 3 4
  • SUA1 3 4
  • Ubiquitin-Like Protein SUMO-1 Activating Enzyme 3
  • SUMO-1 Activating Enzyme E1 N Subunit 3
  • Sentrin/SUMO-Activating Protein AOS1 3
  • SUMO-1 Activating Enzyme Subunit 1 3
  • SUMO-Activating Enzyme Subunit 1 3
  • Activator Of Sumo 1 2
  • Activator Of SUMO1 3
  • HSPC140 3

External Ids for SAE1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for SAE1 Gene

  • GC19P048277
  • GC19P048024
  • GC19P052310
  • GC19P052326
  • GC19P052327
  • GC19P052328
  • GC19P047634
  • GC19P044058

Summaries for SAE1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for SAE1 Gene

  • Posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of the small protein SUMO (see SUMO1; MIM 601912), or sumoylation, regulates protein structure and intracellular localization. SAE1 and UBA2 (MIM 613295) form a heterodimer that functions as a SUMO-activating enzyme for the sumoylation of proteins (Okuma et al., 1999 [PubMed 9920803]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

GeneCards Summary for SAE1 Gene

SAE1 (SUMO1 Activating Enzyme Subunit 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SAE1 include Childhood Type Dermatomyositis and Adult Dermatomyositis. Among its related pathways are Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis and Metabolism of proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and enzyme activator activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAE1 Gene

  • The heterodimer acts as an E1 ligase for SUMO1, SUMO2, SUMO3, and probably SUMO4. It mediates ATP-dependent activation of SUMO proteins followed by formation of a thioester bond between a SUMO protein and a conserved active site cysteine residue on UBA2/SAE2.

Tocris Summary for SAE1 Gene

Gene Wiki entry for SAE1 Gene

Additional gene information for SAE1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for SAE1 Gene

Genomics for SAE1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for SAE1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for SAE1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19J047129 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 660 +18.1 18067 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 SAE1 ZC3H4 BICRA ENSG00000268810 NOP53-AS1 CCDC9 NOP53 SNORD23 SLC1A5 MIR3190
GH19J047185 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 16.7 +75.4 75433 6.1 FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 YBX1 ZNF143 ATF7 FOS SP5 SAE1 BBC3 CCDC9 BICRA MIR3190 ZC3H4
GH19J046600 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 10.4 -510.9 -510879 4.6 CLOCK DMAP1 YY1 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 ZNF263 SP3 NFYC ZC3H11A PPP5D1 CALM3 ENSG00000268423 GC19M046598 ZC3H4 CCDC61 ENSG00000268810 FBXO46 ENSG00000269148 CCDC9
GH19J046859 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 9.7 -249.8 -249840 8.5 MLX FEZF1 DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 ZNF143 SP3 NFYC ARHGAP35 AP2S1 ZC3H4 CCDC61 BICRA ENSG00000268810 CCDC9 SLC1A5 ENSG00000269124 TMEM160
GH19J047078 Enhancer 1.2 ENCODE dbSUPER 17.8 -33.5 -33535 1.6 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK FOXA2 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 SLC30A9 ZNF207 ZNF143 GC19P047078 ZC3H4 BICRA ENSG00000268810 SAE1 TMEM160 NOP53-AS1 CCDC9 NOP53 PPP5C
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around SAE1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the SAE1 gene promoter:
  • Sp1
  • Egr-1
  • Egr-2
  • GATA-1
  • CUTL1
  • Egr-3
  • E2F-1
  • Pax-2a
  • c-Myb
  • Pax-2

Genomic Locations for SAE1 Gene

Genomic Locations for SAE1 Gene
97,363 bases
Plus strand
97,363 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for SAE1 Gene

Genes around SAE1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
SAE1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for SAE1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for SAE1 Gene

Proteins for SAE1 Gene

  • Protein details for SAE1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    SUMO-activating enzyme subunit 1
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RDP5
    • B3KMQ2
    • F5GXX7
    • G3XAK6
    • O95717
    • Q9P020

    Protein attributes for SAE1 Gene

    346 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    38450 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of SAE1 and UBA2/SAE2. The heterodimer corresponds to the two domains that are encoded on a single polypeptide chain in ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Interacts with UBE2I.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for SAE1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for SAE1 Gene


neXtProt entry for SAE1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for SAE1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=335335, posLast=198198, posLast=195195, posLast=183183, posLast=5353, and posLast=3232
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for SAE1 Gene

Domains & Families for SAE1 Gene

Gene Families for SAE1 Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the ubiquitin-activating E1 family.
  • Belongs to the ubiquitin-activating E1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with SAE1: view

Function for SAE1 Gene

Molecular function for SAE1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
The heterodimer acts as an E1 ligase for SUMO1, SUMO2, SUMO3, and probably SUMO4. It mediates ATP-dependent activation of SUMO proteins followed by formation of a thioester bond between a SUMO protein and a conserved active site cysteine residue on UBA2/SAE2.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for SAE1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for SAE1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004839 ubiquitin activating enzyme activity TAS 10187858
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15660128
GO:0008022 protein C-terminus binding IDA 10187858
GO:0008047 enzyme activator activity TAS 9920803
GO:0008641 ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAE1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with SAE1: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for SAE1

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SAE1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for SAE1 Gene

Localization for SAE1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAE1 Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for SAE1 gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 2
mitochondrion 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for SAE1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus NAS 10187858
GO:0005654 nucleoplasm TAS --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA --
GO:0031510 SUMO activating enzyme complex IDA 15660128
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAE1: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for SAE1 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for SAE1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with SAE1: view

Pathways by source for SAE1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q9UBE0-SAE1_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Protein modification; protein sumoylation.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for SAE1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process IEA --
GO:0016567 protein ubiquitination TAS 10187858
GO:0016925 protein sumoylation TAS --
GO:0043085 positive regulation of catalytic activity IEA --
GO:1903955 positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion IMP,HMP 24270810
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with SAE1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for SAE1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for SAE1 Gene

(3) Drugs for SAE1 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Full agonist, Antagonist, Potentiation, Pore Blocker 0

(1) Additional Compounds for SAE1 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with SAE1: view

Transcripts for SAE1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for SAE1 Gene

SUMO1 activating enzyme subunit 1:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for SAE1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for SAE1 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b · 14c · 14d · 14e
SP1: - - - -
SP2: - - - - -
SP3: - - - -
SP4: - - - -
SP5: - - - - - - -
SP6: - - - -
SP7: - -
SP9: - -
SP10: -

Relevant External Links for SAE1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for SAE1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for SAE1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for SAE1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (7.2) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (6.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for SAE1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for SAE1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of SAE1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for SAE1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for SAE1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Expression level increases during S phase and drops in G2 phase (at protein level).

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for SAE1 Gene

  • Lung(4.8)
  • Intestine(4.7)
  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Eye(4.6)
  • Liver(4.5)
  • Blood(4.3)
  • Skin(4)
  • Pancreas(2.8)
  • Kidney(2.4)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with SAE1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for SAE1 Gene

Orthologs for SAE1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for SAE1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia SAE1 34 33
  • 99.81 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia SAE1 34 33
  • 92.1 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia SAE1 34 33
  • 91.5 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Sae1 16 34 33
  • 87.57 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia SAE1 34
  • 87 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Sae1 33
  • 86.71 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia SAE1 34
  • 85 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia SAE1 34
  • 78 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia sae1 33
  • 73.84 (n)
Str.7505 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.7420 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii sae1 34 33
  • 69 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.4380 33
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP004459 33
  • 53.82 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aos1 34 35 33
  • 50.15 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea aos-1 34 35 33
  • 44.17 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes AOS1 36 34 33
  • 46.18 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0E04863g 33
  • 45.68 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons SAE1B 33
  • 49.78 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os11g0497000 33
  • 48.98 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU09006 33
  • 47.41 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes rad31 33
  • 43.99 (n)
Species where no ortholog for SAE1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for SAE1 Gene

Gene Tree for SAE1 (if available)
Gene Tree for SAE1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for SAE1: view image

Paralogs for SAE1 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for SAE1 Gene using alignment to 10 proteins:

  • B4DY66_HUMAN
  • M0QX65_HUMAN
  • M0R054_HUMAN
  • M0R286_HUMAN
  • M0R375_HUMAN Pseudogenes for SAE1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with SAE1: view

No data available for Paralogs for SAE1 Gene

Variants for SAE1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for SAE1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000001417 -- 47,211,122(+) G/A downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000024363 -- 47,192,017(+) G/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000088314 -- 47,194,845(+) T/A genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant
rs1000110305 -- 47,174,005(+) C/T intron_variant
rs1000122699 -- 47,206,863(+) A/G genic_downstream_transcript_variant, intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for SAE1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv650e199 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2659430 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2718661 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3556490 CNV deletion 23714750
esv3644546 CNV loss 21293372
esv3644547 CNV loss 21293372
esv3644548 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1067417 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1116337 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1131432 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1138713 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv512586 CNV loss 21212237
nsv833851 CNV loss 17160897
nsv833852 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for SAE1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 81.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.78; 33.58% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for SAE1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for SAE1 Gene

Disorders for SAE1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(2) MalaCards diseases for SAE1 Gene - From: HGMD and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
childhood type dermatomyositis
  • childhood dermatomyositis
adult dermatomyositis
  • adult onset dermatomyositis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search SAE1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for SAE1

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with SAE1: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for SAE1 Gene

Publications for SAE1 Gene

  1. In vitro SUMO-1 modification requires two enzymatic steps, E1 and E2. (PMID: 9920803) Okuma T … Yasuda H (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of human AOS1 and UBA2, components of the sentrin-activating enzyme complex. (PMID: 10217437) Gong L … Yeh ET (FEBS letters 1999) 2 3 4 22 58
  3. Identification of the enzyme required for activation of the small ubiquitin-like protein SUMO-1. (PMID: 10187858) Desterro JM … Hay RT (The Journal of biological chemistry 1999) 2 3 4 58
  4. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. (PMID: 21833088) International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium … Compston A (Nature 2011) 3 44 58
  5. Active site remodelling accompanies thioester bond formation in the SUMO E1. (PMID: 20164921) Olsen SK … Lima CD (Nature 2010) 3 4 58

Products for SAE1 Gene

Sources for SAE1 Gene