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Aliases for APOA1 Gene

Aliases for APOA1 Gene

  • Apolipoprotein A1 2 3 4 5
  • Apolipoprotein A-I 2 3
  • Apo-AI 3 4
  • Apo(A) 3
  • ApoA-I 4

External Ids for APOA1 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for APOA1 Gene

  • GC11M119059
  • GC11M118218
  • GC11M116740
  • GC11M116244
  • GC11M116211
  • GC11M116706
  • GC11M112638

Summaries for APOA1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for APOA1 Gene

  • This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein, which promotes cholesterol efflux from tissues to the liver for excretion, and is a cofactor for lecithin cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT), an enzyme responsible for the formation of most plasma cholesteryl esters. This gene is closely linked with two other apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 11. Defects in this gene are associated with HDL deficiencies, including Tangier disease, and with systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]

GeneCards Summary for APOA1 Gene

APOA1 (Apolipoprotein A1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with APOA1 include Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, Primary and Amyloidosis, Familial Visceral. Among its related pathways are Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors and PPAR Alpha Pathway. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and lipid binding. An important paralog of this gene is APOA4.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOA1 Gene

  • Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility.

Gene Wiki entry for APOA1 Gene

Additional gene information for APOA1 Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for APOA1 Gene

Genomics for APOA1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for APOA1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for APOA1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH11J116825 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 685.6 +4.5 4544 16.6 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 APOA1 APOC3 GC11P116833 GC11P116832 APOA5 LOC653303 BUD13 TAGLN ZPR1 ENSG00000226645
GH11J116807 Enhancer 1.4 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 28.2 +29.3 29308 1.9 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX DMAP1 ETS1 YY1 NFKBIZ RXRA SP5 MIER2 APOA1 LOC653303 ENSG00000226645 BUD13 SIK3 ENSG00000224077 ENSG00000254678 PAFAH1B2 RNF214 PCSK7
GH11J117093 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 16.1 -259.5 -259521 7.4 HDGF PKNOX1 FOXA2 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YY1 ENSG00000224077 SIK3 LOC653303 APOA1 RNF214 BUD13 ZPR1 GC11M117070
GH11J117177 Promoter/Enhancer 2.4 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 14.3 -343.4 -343410 7.4 HDGF PKNOX1 CLOCK ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SIDT2 LOC653303 PAFAH1B2 APOA1 ENSG00000254678 APOA5 ZPR1 PIR62498
GH11J116851 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 16.4 -15.5 -15515 4.9 HDGF PKNOX1 FEZF1 YY1 ZNF213 ZNF207 ZNF143 ATF7 KLF7 FOS LOC653303 SIK3 APOA1 APOC3 APOA4 ENSG00000236267 APOA5 ZPR1 ENSG00000224077 ENSG00000226645
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around APOA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the APOA1 gene promoter:
  • PPAR-gamma1
  • PPAR-gamma2
  • COUP
  • COUP-TF1
  • HNF-4alpha1
  • HNF-4alpha2
  • C/EBPalpha

Genomic Locations for APOA1 Gene

Genomic Locations for APOA1 Gene
2,200 bases
Minus strand
2,200 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for APOA1 Gene

Genes around APOA1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
APOA1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for APOA1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for APOA1 Gene

Proteins for APOA1 Gene

  • Protein details for APOA1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Apolipoprotein A-I
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8K866
    • Q6LDN9
    • Q6Q785
    • Q9UCS8
    • Q9UCT8

    Protein attributes for APOA1 Gene

    267 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    30778 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with APOA1BP and CLU (PubMed:1742316, PubMed:11991719). Component of a sperm activating protein complex (SPAP), consisting of APOA1, an immunoglobulin heavy chain, an immunoglobulin light chain and albumin (PubMed:1909888). Interacts with NDRG1 (PubMed:15922294). Interacts with SCGB3A2 (PubMed:12847263).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for APOA1 Gene

neXtProt entry for APOA1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for APOA1 Gene

Antibody Products

  • R&D Systems Antibodies for APOA1 (Apolipoprotein A-I/ApoA1)

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for APOA1 Gene

Domains & Families for APOA1 Gene

Gene Families for APOA1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Candidate cardiovascular disease genes
  • Disease related genes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for APOA1 Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for APOA1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the apolipoprotein A1/A4/E family.
  • Belongs to the apolipoprotein A1/A4/E family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with APOA1: view

Function for APOA1 Gene

Molecular function for APOA1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Participates in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion by promoting cholesterol efflux from tissues and by acting as a cofactor for the lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). As part of the SPAP complex, activates spermatozoa motility.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
apolipoprotein A-I (see HDLA@),major protein of HDL,involved in the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to liver

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for APOA1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for APOA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001540 amyloid-beta binding IPI 9211985
GO:0005319 lipid transporter activity IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 1587806
GO:0005543 phospholipid binding IDA 12810715
GO:0005548 phospholipid transporter activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APOA1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with APOA1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for APOA1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for APOA1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for APOA1:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for APOA1

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for APOA1

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for APOA1 Gene

Localization for APOA1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOA1 Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for APOA1 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
extracellular 5
endoplasmic reticulum 5
cytosol 5
endosome 5
nucleus 3
peroxisome 2
lysosome 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytosol (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for APOA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region IDA,TAS --
GO:0005615 extracellular space ISS 22261194
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005769 early endosome TAS --
GO:0005788 endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APOA1: view

Pathways & Interactions for APOA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with APOA1: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for APOA1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001523 retinoid metabolic process TAS --
GO:0001932 regulation of protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0001935 endothelial cell proliferation IEA --
GO:0002576 platelet degranulation TAS --
GO:0002740 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response IDA 12458630
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with APOA1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for APOA1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for APOA1 Gene

(79) Drugs for APOA1 Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Fenofibrate Approved Pharma PPARalpha agonist 173
cholesterol Approved, Investigational Pharma Agonist 0
Copper Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 202
Zinc Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 2430
CER-001 Pharma 0

(48) Additional Compounds for APOA1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Triglycerides Group B
  • 1-Myristoyl-2-pentadecanoyl-3-nervonoyl-glycerol
  • 1-Tetradecanoyl-2-pentadecanoyl-3-(15Z-tetracosanoyl)-glycerol
  • TAG(14:0/15:0/24:1)
  • TAG(53:1)
  • TG(14:0/15:0/24:1)
555-45-3, 30719-27-8, 2190-24-1, 18641-57-1, 56933-26-7
Triglycerides Group D
  • 2,3-Di(octadecanoyloxy)propyl octadecanoate
  • Glyceryl tristearate
  • Stearic acid triglycerin ester
  • Stearin
  • Trioctadecanoin
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with APOA1: view

Transcripts for APOA1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for APOA1 Gene

Unigene Clusters for APOA1 Gene

Apolipoprotein A-I:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for APOA1

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for APOA1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP4: -
SP5: - -

Relevant External Links for APOA1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for APOA1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for APOA1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for APOA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x49.8).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for APOA1 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Plasma (15.6), Synovial fluid (11.7), and Serum (9.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for APOA1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for APOA1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of APOA1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for APOA1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for APOA1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Major protein of plasma HDL, also found in chylomicrons. Synthesized in the liver and small intestine. The oxidized form at Met-110 and Met-136 is increased in individuals with increased risk for coronary artery disease, such as in carrier of the eNOSa/b genotype and exposure to cigarette smoking. It is also present in increased levels in aortic lesions relative to native ApoA-I and increased levels are seen with increasing severity of disease.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for APOA1 Gene

  • Liver(5)
  • Blood(4.7)
  • Heart(4.6)
  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.4)
  • Kidney(3.2)
  • Spleen(3.2)
  • Intestine(2.7)
  • Lung(2.5)
  • Gall bladder(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for APOA1 Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • immune
  • integumentary
  • lymphatic
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • urinary
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • head
  • mouth
  • heart
  • lung
  • abdominal wall
  • biliary tract
  • gallbladder
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • liver
  • pancreas
  • small intestine
  • spleen
  • stomach
  • ureter
  • urinary bladder
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • lymph node
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with APOA1: view

Orthologs for APOA1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of chordates.

Orthologs for APOA1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia APOA1 34 33
  • 99.75 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia APOA1 34 33
  • 87.84 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia APOA1 34 33
  • 84.91 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Apoa1 16 34 33
  • 76.52 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Apoa1 33
  • 73.77 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia APOA1 34
  • 42 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia APOA1 34
  • 31 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves APOA1 34 33
  • 62.86 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia -- 34
  • 24 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia apoa1 33
  • 51.35 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii apoa1b 34 33
  • 51.66 (n)
apoa1a 34
  • 24 (a)
Species where no ortholog for APOA1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for APOA1 Gene

Gene Tree for APOA1 (if available)
Gene Tree for APOA1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for APOA1: view image

Paralogs for APOA1 Gene

Paralogs for APOA1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with APOA1: view

Variants for APOA1 Gene

Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for APOA1 Gene

Genetic variations in APOA1 can result in APOA1 deficiency and are associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol [MIM:107680].

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for APOA1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 11 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs121912716 pathogenic, APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I (MARBURG) 116,836,221(-) T/A coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs121912717 pathogenic, APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I (MUNSTER4) 116,835,948(-) C/A/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, stop_gained
rs121912718 pathogenic, APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I (NORWAY) 116,836,134(-) C/G/T coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121912719 pathogenic, APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I (GIESSEN) 116,836,112(-) G/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs121912720 pathogenic, APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I (MUNSTER3C) 116,837,121(-) G/C/T coding_sequence_variant, intron_variant, missense_variant

Variation tolerance for APOA1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 35.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.22; 24.53% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for APOA1 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for APOA1 Gene

Disorders for APOA1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(62) MalaCards diseases for APOA1 Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hypoalphalipoproteinemia, primary
  • hypoalphalipoproteinemia, familial; fha
amyloidosis, familial visceral
  • amyloidosis viii
aapoai amyloidosis
  • apolipoprotein a-i amyloidosis
tangier disease
  • tgd
coronary stenosis
  • coronary artery stenosis
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search APOA1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • High density lipoprotein deficiency 2 (HDLD2) [MIM:604091]: Inherited as autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by moderately low HDL cholesterol, predilection toward premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and a reduction in cellular cholesterol efflux. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • High density lipoprotein deficiency 1 (HDLD1) [MIM:205400]: Recessive disorder characterized by absence of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol from plasma, accumulation of cholesteryl esters, premature coronary artery disease (CAD), hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent peripheral neuropathy and progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Note=APOA1 mutations may be involved in the pathogenesis of amyloid polyneuropathy-nephropathy Iowa type, also known as amyloidosis van Allen type or familial amyloid polyneuropathy type III (PubMed:3142462 and PubMed:2123470). The clinical picture is dominated by neuropathy in the early stages of the disease and nephropathy late in the course. Death is due in most cases to renal amyloidosis.
  • Amyloidosis 8 (AMYL8) [MIM:105200]: A form of hereditary generalized amyloidosis. Clinical features include extensive visceral amyloid deposits, renal amyloidosis resulting in nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly, cholestasis, petechial skin rash. There is no involvement of the nervous system. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:1502149, ECO:0000269 PubMed:2123470, ECO:0000269 PubMed:3142462, ECO:0000269 PubMed:8208902}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for APOA1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with APOA1: view

No data available for Genatlas for APOA1 Gene

Publications for APOA1 Gene

  1. Apolipoprotein AI and Apolipoprotein B gene polymorphisms and lipid profile in Tamilian population. (PMID: 19191080) Padmaja N … Adithan C (Annals of human biology 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. The environmental and genetic evidence for the association of hyperlipidemia and hypertension. (PMID: 19155782) Ruixing Y … Shangling P (Journal of hypertension 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Apolipoprotein A1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for hypertension and obesity. (PMID: 19408098) Chen ES … de Arruda Cardoso Smith M (Clinical and experimental medicine 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. Association of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B genes with lipid profile in Tamilian population. (PMID: 19729689) Padmaja N … Adithan C (Indian heart journal 2009) 3 22 44 58
  5. Integrated associations of genotypes with multiple blood biomarkers linked to coronary heart disease risk. (PMID: 19336475) Drenos F … Hingorani AD (Human molecular genetics 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for APOA1 Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for APOA1

Sources for APOA1 Gene