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Aliases for DAO Gene

Aliases for DAO Gene

  • D-Amino Acid Oxidase 2 3 5
  • DAMOX 3 4
  • DAAO 3 4
  • D-Amino-Acid Oxidase 3
  • EC 4
  • OXDA 3

External Ids for DAO Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for DAO Gene

  • GC12U990015
  • GC12P109154
  • GC12P107776
  • GC12P109273
  • GC12P106338

Summaries for DAO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for DAO Gene

  • This gene encodes the peroxisomal enzyme D-amino acid oxidase. The enzyme is a flavoprotein which uses flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as its prosthetic group. Its substrates include a wide variety of D-amino acids, but it is inactive on the naturally occurring L-amino acids. Its biological function is not known; it may act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids that accumulate during aging. In mice, it degrades D-serine, a co-agonist of the NMDA receptor. This gene may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for DAO Gene

DAO (D-Amino Acid Oxidase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with DAO include Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 and Schizophrenia. Among its related pathways are Metabolism and Arginine and proline metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include signaling receptor binding and protein dimerization activity. An important paralog of this gene is DDO.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DAO Gene

  • Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.

Additional gene information for DAO Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for DAO Gene

Genomics for DAO Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for DAO Gene

Promoters and enhancers for DAO Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH12J108860 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +1.8 1773 0.6 EBF1 MEF2B DPF2 IRF4 TARDBP IKZF1 EED NBN ATF7 IKZF2 DAO PIR60393 GC12M108860 CORO1C GC12M108869 PIR41002
GH12J108880 Promoter 1 EPDnew 650.3 +21.1 21143 0.1 IRF2 TAF1 SAP130 MAX ERF ZNF48 RAD21 YY1 POLR2A HNF4G DAO GC12M108869 PIR41002 GC12M108908
GH12J108906 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE 4 +48.9 48940 2.6 PKNOX1 ZSCAN26 NFXL1 TEAD3 ZFHX2 ZNF366 POLR2A ZNF444 MAFK EGR2 ALKBH2 SART3 USP30 DAO SVOP GC12M108908 GC12M108869 PIR41002
GH12J108117 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE 4.6 -741.4 -741378 0.5 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ATF1 ARNT POLR2B ZNF766 FOS ATF7 CAVIN1 PWP1 DAO WSCD2 GC12P108090
GH12J109109 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 1.4 +254.7 254677 8.5 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 SLC30A9 POLR2B ACACB UBE3B MYO1H ALKBH2 UNG DAO ENSG00000256139 GC12M109089 LOC105369974 GC12P109057
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around DAO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the DAO gene promoter:
  • GR-beta
  • GR-alpha
  • GR
  • c-Myb
  • USF-1
  • USF1
  • MAZR
  • Pax-4a

Genomic Locations for DAO Gene

Genomic Locations for DAO Gene
42,112 bases
Plus strand
42,112 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for DAO Gene

Genes around DAO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
DAO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for DAO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for DAO Gene

Proteins for DAO Gene

  • Protein details for DAO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    D-amino-acid oxidase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2R7I5
    • Q16758
    • Q8N6R2

    Protein attributes for DAO Gene

    347 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    39474 Da
    Name=FAD; Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:57692;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:17088322, PubMed:18455394). Interacts with DAOA (PubMed:12364586).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for DAO Gene

neXtProt entry for DAO Gene

Post-translational modifications for DAO Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for DAO Gene

Domains & Families for DAO Gene

Gene Families for DAO Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Protein Domains for DAO Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for DAO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the DAMOX/DASOX family.
  • Belongs to the DAMOX/DASOX family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with DAO: view

Function for DAO Gene

Molecular function for DAO Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
A D-amino acid + H(2)O + O(2) = a 2-oxo acid + NH(3) + H(2)O(2).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot BiophysicochemicalProperties:
Kinetic parameters: KM=3.6 mM for D-serine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17088322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17303072}; KM=1.7 mM for D-proline {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17088322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17303072}; KM=1.1 mM for D-tyrosine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17088322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17303072}; KM=1.5 mM for D-DOPA {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17088322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17303072}; KM=1.2 mM for D-phenylalanine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17088322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17303072}; KM=0.9 mM for D-alanine {ECO:0000269 PubMed:17088322, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17303072};
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
D-amino-oxidase,glycine oxidase catalyzing the synthesis of glyoxylate,peroxisomal

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for DAO Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for DAO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for DAO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003884 D-amino-acid oxidase activity TAS --
GO:0005102 signaling receptor binding IPI 20178365
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 12364586
GO:0016491 oxidoreductase activity IEA --
GO:0046983 protein dimerization activity IDA 16616139
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DAO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with DAO: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for DAO Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for DAO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for DAO:
  • Dao Dao<tm1Ttsu>

Animal Model Products

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for DAO Gene

Localization for DAO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DAO Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for DAO gene
Compartment Confidence
peroxisome 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 2
nucleus 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for DAO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005741 colocalizes_with mitochondrial outer membrane IDA 21679769
GO:0005777 peroxisome IDA,IEA 18544534
GO:0005778 peroxisomal membrane IDA 21679769
GO:0005782 peroxisomal matrix TAS --
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA 21679769
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DAO: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for DAO Gene

Pathways & Interactions for DAO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with DAO: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for DAO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006562 proline catabolic process IDA 16616139
GO:0034641 cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS --
GO:0036088 D-serine catabolic process IDA 18544534
GO:0042416 dopamine biosynthetic process IDA 17303072
GO:0046416 D-amino acid metabolic process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with DAO: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for DAO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for DAO Gene

(42) Drugs for DAO Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
FAD Approved Pharma Target 0
Oxygen Approved, Vet_approved Pharma 0
Benzoic Acid Approved, Investigational Pharma Target 8
Histamine Approved, Investigational Pharma Full agonist, Agonist 1105
Ammonia Approved Pharma 0

(27) Additional Compounds for DAO Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (7R)-7-(5-Carboxy-5-oxopentanoyl)aminocephalosporinate
  • (7R)-7-(5-Carboxy-5-oxopentanoyl)aminocephalosporinic acid
  • 7-(5-Carboxyl-5-oxopentanyl)-aminocephalosporinate
  • (7R)-7-(5-Carboxy-5-oxopentanamido)cephalosporanate
  • 7-(5-Carboxyl-5-oxopentanyl)-aminocephalosporinic acid
1-Pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid
  • 1-Pyrroline-2-carboxylate
  • delta1-Pyrroline 2-carboxylate
  • delta1-Pyrroline 2-carboxylic acid
  • δ1-pyrroline 2-carboxylate
  • δ1-pyrroline 2-carboxylic acid
  • 4-Hydroxy-1-pyrroline-2-carboxylate
  • 4-Hydroxy-1-pyrroline-2-carboxylic acid
5-Amino-2-oxopentanoic acid
  • 2-oxo-5-amino-Pentanoate
  • 2-oxo-5-Aminopentanoate
  • 2-oxo-5-Aminovalerate
  • 5-amino-2-Oxopentanoate
  • 5-amino-2-Oxovaleric acid
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with DAO: view

Transcripts for DAO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for DAO Gene

Unigene Clusters for DAO Gene

D-amino-acid oxidase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for DAO Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for DAO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for DAO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for DAO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for DAO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Liver (x15.7), Brain - Cerebellum (x10.8), Brain - Spinal cord (cervical c-1) (x8.9), Brain - Cerebellar Hemisphere (x6.6), and Kidney - Cortex (x6.5).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for DAO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Spinal cord (19.0), Liver (17.0), Gallbladder (15.8), and Kidney (11.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for DAO Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for DAO Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of DAO Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for DAO Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for DAO Gene

  • Kidney(4.7)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Nervous system(4.6)
  • Intestine(4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for DAO Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • epiglottis
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • nose
  • pharynx
  • skull
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
  • bronchus
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • lung
  • scapula
  • trachea
  • biliary tract
  • liver
  • stomach
  • arm
  • digit
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • humerus
  • lower limb
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • toe
  • upper limb
  • blood vessel
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with DAO: view

No data available for mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for DAO Gene

Orthologs for DAO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for DAO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia DAO 34
  • 97 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia DAO 34 33
  • 87.8 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia DAO 34 33
  • 87.13 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Dao 33
  • 82.47 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Dao 16 34 33
  • 82.13 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia DAO 34
  • 70 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia DAO 34
  • 54 (a)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia DAO 34
  • 67 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia dao 33
  • 64.36 (n)
Str.12003 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii dao.3 34 33
  • 64 (n)
dao.2 34
  • 59 (a)
dao.1 34
  • 59 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP001116 33
  • 47.44 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG11236 35 33
  • 44.98 (n)
CG12338 34
  • 35 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea daao-1 34
  • 36 (a)
Y69A2AR.5 35
  • 34 (a)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A08492g 33
  • 38.46 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 34
  • 23 (a)
Species where no ortholog for DAO was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for DAO Gene

Gene Tree for DAO (if available)
Gene Tree for DAO (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for DAO: view image

Paralogs for DAO Gene

Paralogs for DAO Gene

(3) SIMAP similar genes for DAO Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • F8VV35_HUMAN
  • F8W152_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with DAO: view

Variants for DAO Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for DAO Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 12 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000026799 -- 108,895,570(+) G/A/T intron_variant
rs1000215365 -- 108,879,094(+) C/T upstream_transcript_variant
rs1000295499 -- 108,882,623(+) T/A intron_variant
rs1000539784 -- 108,901,178(+) A/T downstream_transcript_variant
rs1000648028 -- 108,879,994(+) G/T upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for DAO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2197774 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2422361 CNV duplication 17116639
nsv455711 CNV loss 19166990
nsv480209 CNV novel sequence insertion 20440878
nsv524524 CNV gain 19592680
nsv560115 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for DAO Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 72.1% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.30; 25.80% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for DAO Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for DAO Gene

Disorders for DAO Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for DAO Gene - From: HGMD, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search DAO in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Schizophrenia (SCZD) [MIM:181500]: A complex, multifactorial psychotic disorder or group of disorders characterized by disturbances in the form and content of thought (e.g. delusions, hallucinations), in mood (e.g. inappropriate affect), in sense of self and relationship to the external world (e.g. loss of ego boundaries, withdrawal), and in behavior (e.g bizarre or apparently purposeless behavior). Although it affects emotions, it is distinguished from mood disorders in which such disturbances are primary. Similarly, there may be mild impairment of cognitive function, and it is distinguished from the dementias in which disturbed cognitive function is considered primary. Some patients manifest schizophrenic as well as bipolar disorder symptoms and are often given the diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:12364586}. Note=Disease susceptibility may be associated with variations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for DAO

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with DAO: view

No data available for Genatlas for DAO Gene

Publications for DAO Gene

  1. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human gene encoding D-amino-acid oxidase. (PMID: 1356107) Fukui K … Miyake Y (The Journal of biological chemistry 1992) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Dysbindin and d-amino-acid-oxidase gene polymorphisms associated with positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. (PMID: 19729970) Wirgenes KV … Andreassen OA (Neuropsychobiology 2009) 3 22 44 58
  3. Evidence for the association of the DAOA (G72) gene with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder but not for the association of the DAO gene with schizophrenia. (PMID: 19586533) Bass NJ … Gurling HM (Behavioral and brain functions : BBF 2009) 3 22 44 58
  4. DTNBP1, NRG1, DAOA, DAO and GRM3 polymorphisms and schizophrenia: an association study. (PMID: 19439994) Jönsson EG … Terenius L (Neuropsychobiology 2009) 3 22 44 58
  5. Association analysis of glycine- and serine-related genes in a Japanese population of patients with schizophrenia. (PMID: 19223009) Ohnuma T … Arai H (Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2009) 3 22 44 58

Products for DAO Gene

Sources for DAO Gene

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