Aliases for EGFR Gene
- Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog (Avian) 2
- Avian Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral (V-Erb-B) Oncogene Homolog 3
- Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Domain 3
- Cell Proliferation-Inducing Protein 61 3
- Cell Growth Inhibiting Protein 40 3
- EC 2.7.10 51
- NISBD2 3
- PIG61 3
- MENA 3
- EGFR 5
External Ids for EGFR Gene
Previous HGNC Symbols for EGFR Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for EGFR Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. EGFR is a component of the cytokine storm that sometimes results from a severe form of human infection of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2020]
EGFR is widely recognized for its importance in cancer. Amplification and mutations have been shown to be driving events in many cancer types. Its role in non-small cell lung cancer, glioblastoma and basal-like breast cancers has spurred many research and drug development efforts. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown efficacy in EGFR amplfied tumors, most notably gefitinib and erlotinib. Mutations in EGFR have been shown to confer resistance to these drugs, particularly the variant T790M, which has been functionally characterized as a resistance marker for both of these drugs. The later generation TKI's have seen some success in treating these resistant cases, and targeted sequencing of the EGFR locus has become a common practice in treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Overproduction of ligands is another possible mechanism of activation of EGFR. ERBB ligands include EGF, TGF-a, AREG, EPG, BTC, HB-EGF, EPR and NRG1-4 (for detailed information please refer to the respective ligand section).
GeneCards Summary for EGFR Gene
EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with EGFR include Inflammatory Skin And Bowel Disease, Neonatal, 2 and Lung Cancer. Among its related pathways are DAG and IP3 signaling and Association Between Physico-Chemical Features and Toxicity Associated Pathways. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include identical protein binding and protein kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ERBB4.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for EGFR Gene
Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses (PubMed:2790960, PubMed:10805725, PubMed:27153536). Known ligands include EGF, TGFA/TGF-alpha, AREG, epigen/EPGN, BTC/betacellulin, epiregulin/EREG and HBEGF/heparin-binding EGF (PubMed:2790960, PubMed:7679104, PubMed:8144591, PubMed:9419975, PubMed:15611079, PubMed:12297049, PubMed:27153536, PubMed:20837704). Ligand binding triggers receptor homo- and/or heterodimerization and autophosphorylation on key cytoplasmic residues. The phosphorylated receptor recruits adapter proteins like GRB2 which in turn activates complex downstream signaling cascades. Activates at least 4 major downstream signaling cascades including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, PLCgamma-PKC and STATs modules (PubMed:27153536). May also activate the NF-kappa-B signaling cascade (PubMed:11116146). Also directly phosphorylates other proteins like RGS16, activating its GTPase activity and probably coupling the EGF receptor signaling to the G protein-coupled receptor signaling (PubMed:11602604). Also phosphorylates MUC1 and increases its interaction with SRC and CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:11483589). Positively regulates cell migration via interaction with CCDC88A/GIV which retains EGFR at the cell membrane following ligand stimulation, promoting EGFR signaling which triggers cell migration (PubMed:20462955). Plays a role in enhancing learning and memory performance (By similarity).
Isoform 2 may act as an antagonist of EGF action.
(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hepatocytes and facilitates its cell entry. Mediates HCV entry by promoting the formation of the CD81-CLDN1 receptor complexes that are essential for HCV entry and by enhancing membrane fusion of cells expressing HCV envelope glycoproteins.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the ErbB family. Four members of the ErbB family have been identified; EGFR (ErbB1, HER1), ErbB2 (HER2), ErbB3 (HER3) and ErbB4 (HER4). EGFR signaling drives many cellular responses.