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Aliases for YARS Gene

Aliases for YARS Gene

  • Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 3 4 5
  • Tyrosine TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Tyrosine--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3
  • Tyrosyl--TRNA Ligase 3
  • EC 4
  • CMTDIC 3
  • TYRRS 3
  • TyrRS 4
  • YRS 3
  • YTS 3

External Ids for YARS Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for YARS Gene

  • GC01M033060
  • GC01M032195
  • GC01M032667
  • GC01M032909
  • GC01M033013
  • GC01M033240
  • GC01M031356

Summaries for YARS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for YARS Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Cytokine activities have also been observed for the human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase, after it is split into two parts, an N-terminal fragment that harbors the catalytic site and a C-terminal fragment found only in the mammalian enzyme. The N-terminal fragment is an interleukin-8-like cytokine, whereas the released C-terminal fragment is an EMAP II-like cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for YARS Gene

YARS (Tyrosyl-TRNA Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with YARS include Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, Dominant Intermediate C and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Intermediate Type. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Phenylalanine metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include obsolete signal transducer activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS Gene

  • Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).

Gene Wiki entry for YARS Gene

Additional gene information for YARS Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for YARS Gene

Genomics for YARS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for YARS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for YARS Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH01J032813 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 650.7 +0.9 911 7.3 CLOCK MLX ZFP64 FEZF1 DMAP1 IRF4 YY1 SLC30A9 ZNF213 E2F8 S100PBP YARS RBBP4 TXLNA KHDRBS1 TSSK3 ZBTB8A TMEM39B EIF3I FAM229A
GH01J032763 Promoter/Enhancer 1.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11 +52.1 52098 4.3 KLF1 USF1 KLF17 SIN3A PAX8 ZIC2 ZFHX2 POLR2A PATZ1 ZFP91 KIAA1522 FNDC5 S100PBP ENSG00000224409 SYNC YARS
GH01J032771 Enhancer 1.1 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 +44.0 44035 5.1 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARID4B SIN3A ZNF2 ZNF48 POLR2B GLIS2 E2F8 S100PBP RBBP4 FNDC5 KIAA1522 FAM229A ENSG00000224409 SYNC YARS ZBTB8OS DCDC2B
GH01J032788 Enhancer 0.9 ENCODE dbSUPER 12.3 +28.7 28732 1.3 JUN HIC1 ZNF121 FOSL1 ZNF366 FOSL2 FOS KLF8 RXRA CEBPB FNDC5 S100PBP YARS SYNC KIAA1522
GH01J032779 Enhancer 0.8 ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 +37.4 37370 1.6 JUN HLF MAX CEBPB EP300 ZIC2 GABPA GATA3 POLR2A ZSCAN5C S100PBP FNDC5 SYNC KIAA1522 YARS ENSG00000224409 RBBP4 ZBTB8OS LOC105378629
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around YARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the YARS gene promoter:
  • NF-kappaB
  • NF-kappaB1
  • E2F-4
  • E2F
  • E2F-1
  • E2F-2
  • E2F-3a
  • E2F-5

Genomic Locations for YARS Gene

Genomic Locations for YARS Gene
42,917 bases
Minus strand
42,915 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for YARS Gene

Genes around YARS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
YARS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for YARS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for YARS Gene

Proteins for YARS Gene

  • Protein details for YARS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tyrosine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B3KWK4
    • D3DPQ4
    • O43276
    • Q53EN1

    Protein attributes for YARS Gene

    528 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    59143 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.
    • Sequence=AAB39406.1; Type=Frameshift; Positions=354; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for YARS Gene

neXtProt entry for YARS Gene

Post-translational modifications for YARS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=513513, posLast=206206, isoforms=147, and posLast=119119
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for YARS Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for YARS Gene

Domains & Families for YARS Gene

Gene Families for YARS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for YARS Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with YARS: view

Function for YARS Gene

Molecular function for YARS Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + L-tyrosine + tRNA(Tyr) = AMP + diphosphate + L-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr).

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for YARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for YARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000049 tRNA binding IBA --
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003723 RNA binding IEA,HDA 22658674
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004831 tyrosine-tRNA ligase activity IEA,TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with YARS: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for YARS Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for YARS Gene

MGI Knock Outs for YARS:
  • Yars Yars<tm1b(KOMP)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for YARS Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target YARS

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for YARS

Clone Products

No data available for Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for YARS Gene

Localization for YARS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS Gene


Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for YARS gene
Compartment Confidence
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
plasma membrane 1
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for YARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space TAS 10102815
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,TAS 9162081
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS --
GO:0016604 nuclear body IDA --
GO:0017101 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase multienzyme complex IBA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS: view

Pathways & Interactions for YARS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with YARS: view

Pathways by source for YARS Gene

1 KEGG pathway for YARS Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for YARS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for YARS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006412 translation IEA --
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA,TAS --
GO:0006437 tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA --
GO:0006915 apoptotic process TAS 10102815
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with YARS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for YARS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for YARS Gene

(13) Drugs for YARS Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
L-Tyrosine Approved, Investigational Nutra Target 0
Resveratrol Approved, Experimental, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Cyclooxygenase inhibitor 126
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUOROETHYL)-L-PHENYLALANINE Experimental Pharma Target 0

(7) Additional Compounds for YARS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with YARS: view

Transcripts for YARS Gene

mRNA/cDNA for YARS Gene

(4) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(8) Additional mRNA sequences :
(1) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(10) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for YARS Gene

Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for YARS

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for YARS Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b · 8c ^ 9a · 9b · 9c ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b
SP1: - - - - - -
SP2: -
SP5: - -

Relevant External Links for YARS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for YARS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for YARS Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for YARS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (10.2).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for YARS Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for YARS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of YARS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for YARS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for YARS Gene

  • Nervous system(5)
  • Lung(4.7)
  • Blood(4.6)
  • Liver(4.6)
  • Bone(4.2)
  • Eye(3.4)
  • Skin(3.4)
  • Kidney(3.3)
  • Intestine(3.1)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Spleen(2.5)
  • Adrenal gland(2.1)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for YARS Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • mesoderm
  • nervous
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • head
  • arm
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • shin
  • thigh
  • upper limb
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • spinal cord
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with YARS: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for YARS Gene

Orthologs for YARS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for YARS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia YARS 34 33
  • 99.68 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia YARS 34 33
  • 92.11 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia YARS 34
  • 92 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia YARS 34 33
  • 91.35 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Yars 16 34 33
  • 89.52 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Yars 33
  • 89.27 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia YARS 34
  • 83 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves YARS 34 33
  • 78.12 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia YARS 34
  • 85 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia yars 33
  • 73.42 (n)
Str.4835 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii yars 34 33 33
  • 73.93 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG4561 35
  • 67 (a)
Aats-tyr 34 33
  • 65.61 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003003 33
  • 61.9 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y105E8A.19 34 35
  • 32 (a)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_AAL148W 33
  • 60.62 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TYS1 36 34 33
  • 59.84 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0F15389g 33
  • 57.7 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os04g0303900 33
  • 53.73 (n)
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.4638 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.1744 34
  • 66 (a)
Cin.10401 33
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes yrs1 33
  • 57.32 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU07755 33
  • 54.24 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.10401 33
Species where no ortholog for YARS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for YARS Gene

Gene Tree for YARS (if available)
Gene Tree for YARS (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for YARS: view image

Paralogs for YARS Gene

No data available for Paralogs for YARS Gene

Variants for YARS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for YARS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 01 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1009349245 uncertain-significance, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant intermediate C 32,787,014(-) A/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1057515442 uncertain-significance, Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Intermediate 32,817,577(-) G/A 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant
rs1057515512 uncertain-significance, Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Intermediate 32,782,464(-) A/G coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant
rs1057515513 uncertain-significance, Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Intermediate 32,797,857(-) C/T intron_variant
rs1057515514 uncertain-significance, Charcot-Marie-Tooth, Intermediate 32,817,411(-) A/T 5_prime_UTR_variant, genic_upstream_transcript_variant, upstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for YARS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv519188 CNV loss 19592680
nsv509158 CNV insertion 20534489
nsv322 CNV deletion 18451855
esv3585678 CNV loss 21293372
esv3585677 CNV loss 21293372

Variation tolerance for YARS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 17.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.84; 34.58% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for YARS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for YARS Gene

Disorders for YARS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(16) MalaCards diseases for YARS Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, Swiss-Prot, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
charcot-marie-tooth disease, dominant intermediate c
  • cmtdic
charcot-marie-tooth disease intermediate type
  • charcot-marie-tooth disease dominant intermediate
deafness, autosomal recessive 44
  • dfnb44
maxillonasal dysplasia, binder type
  • binder syndrome
gastric leiomyosarcoma
  • leiomyosarcoma of stomach
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search YARS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, dominant, intermediate type, C (CMTDIC) [MIM:608323]: A form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a disorder of the peripheral nervous system, characterized by progressive weakness and atrophy, initially of the peroneal muscles and later of the distal muscles of the arms. The dominant intermediate type C is characterized by clinical and pathologic features intermediate between demyelinating and axonal peripheral neuropathies, and motor median nerve conduction velocities ranging from 25 to 45 m/sec. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16429158}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for YARS

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with YARS: view

No data available for Genatlas for YARS Gene

Publications for YARS Gene

  1. Human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase shares amino acid sequence homology with a putative cytokine. (PMID: 9162081) Kleeman TA … First EA (The Journal of biological chemistry 1997) 2 3 4 22 58
  2. Crystal structures that suggest late development of genetic code components for differentiating aromatic side chains. (PMID: 14671330) Yang XL … Ribas de Pouplana L (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003) 3 4 22 58
  3. Crystal structure of a human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase cytokine. (PMID: 12427973) Yang XL … Schimmel P (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002) 3 4 22 58
  4. Evidence that two present-day components needed for the genetic code appeared after nucleated cells separated from eubacteria. (PMID: 8552597) Ribas de Pouplana L … Schimmel P (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1996) 2 3 4 58
  5. Dominant mutations in the tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase gene recapitulate in Drosophila features of human Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. (PMID: 19561293) Storkebaum E … Jordanova A (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009) 3 22 58

Products for YARS Gene

Sources for YARS Gene

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