Aliases for XPC Gene
External Ids for XPC Gene
Previous GeneCards Identifiers for XPC Gene
The protein encoded by this gene is a key component of the XPC complex, which plays an important role in the early steps of global genome nucleotide excision repair (NER). The encoded protein is important for damage sensing and DNA binding, and shows a preference for single-stranded DNA. Mutations in this gene or some other NER components can result in Xeroderma pigmentosum, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased sensitivity to sunlight with the development of carcinomas at an early age. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
GeneCards Summary for XPC Gene
XPC (XPC Complex Subunit, DNA Damage Recognition And Repair Factor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with XPC include Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C and Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Variant Type. Among its related pathways are Metabolism of proteins and Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include single-stranded DNA binding and bubble DNA binding.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for XPC Gene
Involved in global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) by acting as damage sensing and DNA-binding factor component of the XPC complex (PubMed:10734143, PubMed:19609301, PubMed:20649465, PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). Has only a low DNA repair activity by itself which is stimulated by RAD23B and RAD23A. Has a preference to bind DNA containing a short single-stranded segment but not to damaged oligonucleotides (PubMed:10734143, PubMed:19609301, PubMed:20649465). This feature is proposed to be related to a dynamic sensor function: XPC can rapidly screen duplex DNA for non-hydrogen-bonded bases by forming a transient nucleoprotein intermediate complex which matures into a stable recognition complex through an intrinsic single-stranded DNA-binding activity (PubMed:10734143, PubMed:19609301, PubMed:20649465). The XPC complex is proposed to represent the first factor bound at the sites of DNA damage and together with other core recognition factors, XPA, RPA and the TFIIH complex, is part of the pre-incision (or initial recognition) complex (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). The XPC complex recognizes a wide spectrum of damaged DNA characterized by distortions of the DNA helix such as single-stranded loops, mismatched bubbles or single-stranded overhangs (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). The orientation of XPC complex binding appears to be crucial for inducing a productive NER (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). XPC complex is proposed to recognize and to interact with unpaired bases on the undamaged DNA strand which is followed by recruitment of the TFIIH complex and subsequent scanning for lesions in the opposite strand in a 5'-to-3' direction by the NER machinery (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) which are formed upon UV-induced DNA damage esacpe detection by the XPC complex due to a low degree of structural perurbation. Instead they are detected by the UV-DDB complex which in turn recruits and cooperates with the XPC complex in the respective DNA repair (PubMed:9734359, PubMed:10873465, PubMed:12509299, PubMed:12547395, PubMed:19941824, PubMed:20028083, PubMed:20798892). In vitro, the XPC:RAD23B dimer is sufficient to initiate NER; it preferentially binds to cisplatin and UV-damaged double-stranded DNA and also binds to a variety of chemically and structurally diverse DNA adducts (PubMed:20028083). XPC:RAD23B contacts DNA both 5' and 3' of a cisplatin lesion with a preference for the 5' side. XPC:RAD23B induces a bend in DNA upon binding. XPC:RAD23B stimulates the activity of DNA glycosylases TDG and SMUG1 (PubMed:20028083).
In absence of DNA repair, the XPC complex also acts as a transcription coactivator: XPC interacts with the DNA-binding transcription factor E2F1 at a subset of promoters to recruit KAT2A and histone acetyltransferase complexes (HAT) (PubMed:29973595, PubMed:31527837). KAT2A recruitment specifically promotes acetylation of histone variant H2A.Z.1/H2A.Z, but not H2A.Z.2/H2A.V, thereby promoting expression of target genes (PubMed:31527837).