Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitoc... See more...

Aliases for WARS1 Gene

Aliases for WARS1 Gene

  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 1 2 3 5
  • IFP53 2 3 4
  • Tryptophan TRNA Ligase 1, Cytoplasmic 2 3
  • Tryptophan--TRNA Ligase, Cytoplasmic 3 4
  • Interferon-Induced Protein 53 3 4
  • Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 2 4
  • EC 6.1.1.2 4 51
  • IFI53 3 4
  • TrpRS 3 4
  • WARS 3 4
  • HWRS 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein 3
  • EC 6.1.1 51
  • GAMMA-2 3
  • WARS1 5
  • HMN9 3
  • WRS 4

External Ids for WARS1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for WARS1 Gene

  • IFI53
  • WARS

Summaries for WARS1 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for WARS1 Gene

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WARS) catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA(trp) with tryptophan and is induced by interferon. Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class I tRNA synthetase family. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GeneCards Summary for WARS1 Gene

WARS1 (Tryptophanyl-TRNA Synthetase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with WARS1 include Neuronopathy, Distal Hereditary Motor, Type Ix and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. Among its related pathways are tRNA Aminoacylation and Photodynamic therapy-induced unfolded protein response. An important paralog of this gene is WARS2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for WARS1 Gene

  • Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.

Gene Wiki entry for WARS1 Gene

Additional gene information for WARS1 Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for WARS1 Gene

Genomics for WARS1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for WARS1 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around WARS1 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for WARS1

Genomic Locations for WARS1 Gene

Genomic Locations for WARS1 Gene
chr14:100,333,789-100,376,805
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
43,017 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr14:100,800,125-100,843,142
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
43,018 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for WARS1 Gene

Genes around WARS1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
WARS1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for WARS1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for WARS1 Gene

Proteins for WARS1 Gene

  • Protein details for WARS1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P23381-SYWC_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tryptophan--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
    Protein Accession:
    P23381
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A6NGN1
    • A6NID3
    • P78535
    • Q502Y0
    • Q53XB6
    • Q9UDI5
    • Q9UDL3

    Protein attributes for WARS1 Gene

    Size:
    471 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    53165 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer (PubMed:28369220). Isoform 1 and isoform 2 interact with an oxidized form of GAPDH. GAPDH stimulates the aminoacylation activity of isoform 2 (PubMed:15628863).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for WARS1 Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for WARS1 Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for WARS1 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for WARS1 Gene

P23381:
  • KMSASDPNS
  • NVVKIQKHVTFNQVKGIFGFTDSDCIGKISFPA
  • VLQPLIAEHQARRK
  • LYTGRGPS
  • VDVSFMYLTFFLEDDD
  • FLRRGIFFSHRD
  • VKEFMTPR
  • LIPCAIDQDPYFR
  • FFPALQG
  • SGAMLTGELK

Post-translational modifications for WARS1 Gene

  • Proteolytic cleavage generates 2 forms; T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys102 and Lys154
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Domains & Families for WARS1 Gene

Gene Families for WARS1 Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Plasma proteins
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for WARS1 Gene

InterPro:
Blocks:
  • WHEP-TRS domain
  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for WARS1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Tryptophan--tRNA ligase (SYWC_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P23381

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

SYWC_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with WARS1: view

Function for WARS1 Gene

Molecular function for WARS1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Isoform 1, isoform 2 and T1-TrpRS have aminoacylation activity while T2-TrpRS lacks it. Isoform 2, T1-TrpRS and T2-TrpRS possess angiostatic activity whereas isoform 1 lacks it. T2-TrpRS inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. Regulates ERK, Akt, and eNOS activation pathways that are associated with angiogenesis, cytoskeletal reorganization and shear stress-responsive gene expression.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-tryptophan + tRNA(Trp) = AMP + diphosphate + H(+) + L-tryptophanyl-tRNA(Trp); Xref=Rhea:RHEA:24080, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9671, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9705, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:33019, ChEBI:CHEBI:57912, ChEBI:CHEBI:78442, ChEBI:CHEBI:78535, ChEBI:CHEBI:456215; EC=6.1.1.2; Evidence={ECO:0000269|PubMed:1761529, ECO:0000269|PubMed:28369220};.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Induction:
By IFNG/IFN-gamma.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 1,cytoplasmic form also prevailing in the mitochondria

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for WARS1 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for WARS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for WARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004812 aminoacyl-tRNA ligase activity IEA --
GO:0004830 tryptophan-tRNA ligase activity IEA,NAS 8496617
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 15628863
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with WARS1: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for WARS1 Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for WARS1 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for WARS1:
  • Wars Wars<tm1b(EUCOMM)Hmgu>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for WARS1

Clone Products

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for WARS1 Gene

Localization for WARS1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS1 Gene

Cytoplasm.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for WARS1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
extracellular 4
nucleus 4
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
peroxisome 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for WARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA 22504299
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA,TAS 16130169
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA,TAS --
GO:0032991 protein-containing complex IMP 22504299
GO:0070062 extracellular exosome HDA 20458337
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS1: view

Pathways & Interactions for WARS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with WARS1: view

Pathways by source for WARS1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for WARS1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0001525 angiogenesis IEA --
GO:0001933 negative regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA 22504299
GO:0006412 translation IEA,TAS 1761529
GO:0006418 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation IEA,TAS --
GO:0006436 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation IEA,NAS 8496617
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with WARS1: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for WARS1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for WARS1 Gene

(10) Drugs for WARS1 Gene - From: DrugBank, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Tryptophan Approved, Withdrawn Nutra Allosteric regulator, Positive, Inhibitor, Inhibition, Target, Enzyme, inhibitor, substrate 96
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Adenosine monophosphate Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
Tryptophanamide Experimental Pharma Target 0
Tryptophanyl-5'amp Experimental Pharma Target 0

(7) Additional Compounds for WARS1 Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
pyrophosphate
  • [(ho)2P(O)OP(O)(OH)2]
  • Acide diphosphorique
  • Diphosphorsaeure
  • H4P2O7
  • PYROphosphATE
14000-31-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with WARS1: view

Transcripts for WARS1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for WARS1 Gene

4 REFSEQ mRNAs :
18 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
44 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for WARS1

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for WARS1 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for WARS1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
WARS1

Expression for WARS1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for WARS1

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for WARS1 Gene:

Hs.497599

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for WARS1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Blood(4.9)
  • Skin(4.9)
  • Lung(4.7)
  • Spleen(4.2)
  • Intestine(4.1)
  • Liver(3.9)
  • Kidney(3.9)
  • Stomach(3.6)
  • Heart(3.4)
  • Pancreas(3.3)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Lymph node(2.9)
  • Thyroid gland(2.7)
  • Eye(2.7)
  • Bone marrow(2.5)
  • Adrenal gland(2.2)
  • Gall bladder(2.1)
  • Bone(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with WARS1: view

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for WARS1 Gene

Orthologs for WARS1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for WARS1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia WARS 30 31
  • 99.58 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia WARS 30 31
  • 89.95 (n)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia WARS 30 31
  • 88.01 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Wars 30 17 31
  • 87.05 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Wars 30
  • 86.2 (n)
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia WARS 31
  • 86 (a)
OneToOne
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia WARS 31
  • 85 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves WARS 30 31
  • 73.52 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia WARS 31
  • 81 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia wars 30
  • 73.68 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia wars-prov 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii wars 30
  • 73.41 (n)
WARS 31
  • 70 (a)
OneToOne
zgc73274 30
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP003315 30
  • 64.33 (n)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Aats-trp 30 31
  • 62.18 (n)
OneToOne
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea wars-1 30 31
  • 60.34 (n)
OneToOne
A. gosspyii yeast
(Eremothecium gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR117W 30
  • 58.31 (n)
K. Lactis Yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0B07733g 30
  • 58.31 (n)
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes WRS1 30 31 33
  • 57.47 (n)
OneToOne
Thale Cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G04600 30
  • 60.8 (n)
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.11361 30
Soybean
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.2127 30
Rice
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os12g0540900 30
  • 61.65 (n)
Os.8880 30
Barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.6902 30
Wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.3075 30
Bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU06722 30
  • 61.15 (n)
Sea Squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea -- 31
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
Fission Yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes wrs1 30
  • 58.74 (n)
Sea Vase
(Ciona intestinalis)
Ascidiacea Cin.14059 30
Species where no ortholog for WARS1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for WARS1 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for WARS1 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for WARS1 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for WARS1: view image

Paralogs for WARS1 Gene

Paralogs for WARS1 Gene

Pseudogenes.org Pseudogenes for WARS1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with WARS1: view

Variants for WARS1 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for WARS1 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 14 pos Variation AA Info Type
783049 Benign: not provided 100,369,161(-) G/C MISSENSE_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
rs770003315 Pathogenic: Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type 9 100,346,802(-) T/C MISSENSE_VARIANT
VAR_036466 A breast cancer sample p.Glu455Asp
VAR_080407 Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, 9 (HMN9) [MIM:617721] p.His257Arg
rs139914390 - p.Ala443Ser

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for WARS1 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for WARS1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv34023 CNV loss 18971310
esv3635506 CNV gain 21293372
nsv832875 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for WARS1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 60.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 2.26; 40.61% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for WARS1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
WARS1

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for WARS1 Gene

Disorders for WARS1 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(29) MalaCards diseases for WARS1 Gene - From: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, and DISEASES

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, type ix
  • hmn9
charcot-marie-tooth disease
  • peroneal muscular atrophy
trench fever
  • his-werner disease
reflex epilepsy
  • epilepsy, sensory-induced
glanders
  • farcy pipes
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search WARS1 in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

SYWC_HUMAN
  • Neuronopathy, distal hereditary motor, 9 (HMN9) [MIM:617721]: An autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by juvenile onset of slowly progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy affecting both the lower and upper limbs. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:28369220}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with WARS1: view

No data available for Genatlas for WARS1 Gene

Publications for WARS1 Gene

  1. Human interferon gamma potently induces the synthesis of a 55-kDa protein (gamma 2) highly homologous to rabbit peptide chain release factor and bovine tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 1763065) Fleckner J … Justesen J (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1991) 2 3 4 23
  2. Two conformations of a crystalline human tRNA synthetase-tRNA complex: implications for protein synthesis. (PMID: 16724112) Yang XL … Schimmel P (The EMBO journal 2006) 3 23 26
  3. Oxidative stress-responsive intracellular regulation specific for the angiostatic form of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. (PMID: 15628863) Wakasugi K … Morishima I (Biochemistry 2005) 3 4 23
  4. Crystal structure of human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase catalytic fragment: insights into substrate recognition, tRNA binding, and angiogenesis activity. (PMID: 14660560) Yu Y … Ding J (The Journal of biological chemistry 2004) 3 4 23
  5. Biologically active fragment of a human tRNA synthetase inhibits fluid shear stress-activated responses of endothelial cells. (PMID: 14630953) Tzima E … Schimmel P (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003) 3 4 23

Products for WARS1 Gene

Sources for WARS1 Gene