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Aliases for VLDLR Gene

Aliases for VLDLR Gene

  • Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 2 3 5
  • VLDL Receptor 3 4
  • VLDL-R 3 4
  • Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor 3
  • CAMRQ1 3
  • CARMQ1 3
  • CHRMQ1 3

External Ids for VLDLR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for VLDLR Gene

  • GC09P002776
  • GC09P002603
  • GC09P002612

Summaries for VLDLR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for VLDLR Gene

  • The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family consists of cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands. This gene encodes a lipoprotein receptor that is a member of the LDLR family and plays important roles in VLDL-triglyceride metabolism and the reelin signaling pathway. Mutations in this gene cause VLDLR-associated cerebellar hypoplasia. Alternative splicing generates multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

GeneCards Summary for VLDLR Gene

VLDLR (Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with VLDLR include Cerebellar Ataxia, Mental Retardation, And Dysequilibrium Syndrome 1 and Cerebellar Hypoplasia. Among its related pathways are Lipoprotein metabolism and Metabolism. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding. An important paralog of this gene is LRP8.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VLDLR Gene

  • Binds VLDL and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. Binding to Reelin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 and modulation of Tau phosphorylation (By similarity).

Gene Wiki entry for VLDLR Gene

Additional gene information for VLDLR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for VLDLR Gene

Genomics for VLDLR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for VLDLR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for VLDLR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH09I002620 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 560.2 +1.2 1223 4.1 SIN3A DMAP1 ZNF48 ATF7 SP3 NFYC MXD4 ZNF592 KAT8 ATF4 VLDLR PIR48978 VLDLR-AS1 GC09P002596
GH09I002418 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 42.5 -202.8 -202784 1.5 MAZ FEZF1 ZIC2 ATF2 OSR2 PRDM6 BCL6B CREB1 PRDM10 ATF7 VLDLR LOC105375956 LOC101930053
GH09I002411 Enhancer 0.6 ENCODE 37.2 -208.8 -208808 3.6 PKNOX1 USF1 MAX USF2 DPF2 FOXA1 JUND GATA3 CUX1 FOS VLDLR LOC105375956 LOC101930053
GH09I002728 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 10.9 +106.4 106429 0.6 PKNOX1 FOXA2 ZNF2 YY1 TCF12 ZNF213 ZNF143 ATF7 RUNX3 RXRA VLDLR-AS1 VLDLR GC09M002715 KCNV2 PIR50784 PUM3
GH09I002559 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl ENCODE 12.1 -61.7 -61708 1.8 SP1 FOXA2 RFX1 POLR2A USF2 MAX RAD21 VLDLR ENSG00000231052 GC09P002596 VLDLR-AS1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around VLDLR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the VLDLR gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for VLDLR Gene

Genomic Locations for VLDLR Gene
38,375 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for VLDLR Gene

Genes around VLDLR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
VLDLR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for VLDLR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for VLDLR Gene

Proteins for VLDLR Gene

  • Protein details for VLDLR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Very low-density lipoprotein receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2RMZ7
    • D3DRH6
    • Q5VVF6

    Protein attributes for VLDLR Gene

    873 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    96098 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Binds to the extracellular matrix protein Reelin. Interacts with VLDLR. Interacts with SNX17 (By similarity). Interacts with DAB1. Receptor for the minor-group human rhinoviruses (HRVs); binds protein VP1 through the second and third LDL-receptor class A domains. Interacts with PCSK9.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for VLDLR Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for VLDLR Gene


neXtProt entry for VLDLR Gene

Post-translational modifications for VLDLR Gene

  • Ubiquitinated at Lys-839 by MYLIP leading to degradation.
  • Ubiquitination at posLast=828828 and isoforms=2839
  • Glycosylation at isoforms=271, isoforms=2151, posLast=277277, isoforms=765, and isoforms=2781

Other Protein References for VLDLR Gene

Protein Products

  • Novus Biologicals lysates for VLDLR

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for VLDLR Gene

Domains & Families for VLDLR Gene

Gene Families for VLDLR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Predicted secreted proteins

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

genes like me logo Genes that share domains with VLDLR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VLDLR Gene

Function for VLDLR Gene

Molecular function for VLDLR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
very low density lipoprotein/ApoE receptor,containing a CGG repeat in 5utr,(may be a susceptibility gene for late onset senile Alzheimer disease)
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Binds VLDL and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. Binding to Reelin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 and modulation of Tau phosphorylation (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for VLDLR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for VLDLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005041 low-density lipoprotein receptor activity TAS 10380922
GO:0005509 calcium ion binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 8083232
GO:0030229 very-low-density lipoprotein particle receptor activity TAS 20005821
GO:0034185 apolipoprotein binding ISS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VLDLR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with VLDLR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for VLDLR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for VLDLR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for VLDLR:

Animal Model Products

miRNA for VLDLR Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target VLDLR

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for VLDLR Gene

Localization for VLDLR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VLDLR Gene

Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein. Membrane, clathrin-coated pit; Single-pass type I membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for VLDLR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5
lysosome 5
extracellular 4
cytoskeleton 3
peroxisome 2
mitochondrion 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Cytokinetic bridge (2)
  • Microtubule organizing center (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for VLDLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005615 extracellular space IEA --
GO:0005765 lysosomal membrane TAS --
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005905 clathrin-coated pit IEA --
GO:0016020 membrane IDA 15082773
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VLDLR: view

Pathways & Interactions for VLDLR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with VLDLR: view

SIGNOR curated interactions for VLDLR Gene

Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for VLDLR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II ISS --
GO:0006629 lipid metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006810 transport IEA --
GO:0006869 lipid transport IEA --
GO:0006897 endocytosis IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with VLDLR: view

Drugs & Compounds for VLDLR Gene

(6) Drugs for VLDLR Gene - From: DrugBank and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
lauric acid Approved, Experimental Pharma Agonist, Target 0

(6) Additional Compounds for VLDLR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with VLDLR: view

Transcripts for VLDLR Gene

Unigene Clusters for VLDLR Gene

Very low density lipoprotein receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for VLDLR Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3a · 3b ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b ^ 6 ^ 7a · 7b ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9a · 9b ^ 10a · 10b ^ 11 ^ 12 ^ 13 ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b ^ 16a · 16b ·
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP4: -
SP5: -
SP6: -

ExUns: 16c

Relevant External Links for VLDLR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for VLDLR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for VLDLR Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for VLDLR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Ovary (x5.6) and Heart - Left Ventricle (x5.4).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for VLDLR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Adrenal (33.2) and Testis (15.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for VLDLR Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for VLDLR Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of VLDLR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for VLDLR Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for VLDLR Gene:

Tissue specificity: Abundant in heart and skeletal muscle; also ovary and kidney; not in liver.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for VLDLR Gene

  • Heart(4.6)
  • Muscle(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for VLDLR Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • skull
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • pelvis
  • foot
  • hand
  • lower limb
  • upper limb
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • vertebrae
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with VLDLR: view

Orthologs for VLDLR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for VLDLR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia VLDLR 33 34
  • 99.62 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia VLDLR 33 34
  • 91.56 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia VLDLR 33 34
  • 91.16 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Vldlr 33
  • 91.07 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Vldlr 33 16 34
  • 90.95 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia VLDLR 34
  • 90 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia VLDLR 34
  • 71 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves VLDL 34
  • 80 (a)
  • 79.1 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia VLDLR 34
  • 71 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia vldlr 33
  • 72.39 (n)
Str.8622 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.998 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii vldlr 33 34
  • 68.57 (n)
zgc55792 33
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.11520 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta LpR1 33 34
  • 51.1 (n)
CG4861 35
  • 40 (a)
LpR2 34
  • 33 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP002186 33
  • 50.34 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea T13C2.6 33 34
  • 50.53 (n)
R01H2.3 35
  • 38 (a)
B0244.8 35
  • 37 (a)
Species where no ortholog for VLDLR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for VLDLR Gene

Gene Tree for VLDLR (if available)
Gene Tree for VLDLR (if available)

Paralogs for VLDLR Gene

Paralogs for VLDLR Gene

(17) SIMAP similar genes for VLDLR Gene using alignment to 3 proteins: Pseudogenes for VLDLR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with VLDLR: view

Variants for VLDLR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for VLDLR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 09 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1019716341 uncertain-significance, Cerebellar hypoplasia 2,654,358(+) T/G 3_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs115773578 uncertain-significance, Cerebellar hypoplasia 2,647,561(+) G/A coding_sequence_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant, synonymous_variant
rs116082439 uncertain-significance, Cerebellar hypoplasia, not specified 2,652,909(+) T/C coding_sequence_variant, missense_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant
rs11789583 likely-benign, not specified, Cerebellar hypoplasia 2,644,954(+) C/G/T intron_variant
rs12379259 benign, Cerebellar hypoplasia 2,622,121(+) A/G 5_prime_UTR_variant, non_coding_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for VLDLR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv824819 CNV gain 20364138
nsv613137 CNV gain 21841781
nsv527298 CNV loss 19592680
nsv1133705 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv1029876 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1020530 CNV gain 25217958

Variation tolerance for VLDLR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.66; 65.83% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for VLDLR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for VLDLR Gene

Disorders for VLDLR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(15) MalaCards diseases for VLDLR Gene - From: HGMD, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search VLDLR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases


  • Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome 1 (CAMRQ1) [MIM:224050]: A congenital, non-progressive cerebellar ataxia associated with disturbed equilibrium, delayed ambulation, mental retardation, cerebellar hypoplasia and mild cerebral gyral simplification. Additional features include short stature, strabismus, pes planus and, rarely, seizures. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16080122}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Additional Disease Information for VLDLR

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with VLDLR: view

No data available for Genatlas for VLDLR Gene

Publications for VLDLR Gene

  1. A common VLDLR polymorphism interacts with APOE genotype in the prediction of carotid artery disease risk. (PMID: 18056683) Crawford DC … Jarvik GP (Journal of lipid research 2008) 3 22 44 58
  2. The proprotein convertase PCSK9 induces the degradation of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and its closest family members VLDLR and ApoER2. (PMID: 18039658) Poirier S … Seidah NG (The Journal of biological chemistry 2008) 3 4 22 58
  3. Functional candidate genes in age-related macular degeneration: significant association with VEGF, VLDLR, and LRP6. (PMID: 16384981) Haines JL … Pericak-Vance MA (Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 2006) 3 22 44 58
  4. Association of polymorphisms in CYP17A1, MTP, and VLDLR with bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women and men. (PMID: 15953542) Yamada Y … Shimokata H (Genomics 2005) 3 22 44 58
  5. A cellular receptor of human rhinovirus type 2, the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, binds to two neighboring proteins of the viral capsid. (PMID: 12857919) Neumann E … Hewat EA (Journal of virology 2003) 3 4 22 58

Products for VLDLR Gene

Sources for VLDLR Gene

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