This gene encodes a protein that is similar to a serine/threonine kinase in C. elegans which is involved in axonal elongation. The structure of this protein is similar to the C. elegans protein in that both proteins have an N-terminal kinase domain, a central proline/serine rich (PS) domain, and a C-terminal (C) domain. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome regi... See more...

Aliases for ULK2 Gene

Aliases for ULK2 Gene

  • Unc-51 Like Autophagy Activating Kinase 2 2 3 5
  • Serine/Threonine-Protein Kinase ULK2 3 4
  • EC 2.7.11.1 4 51
  • KIAA0623 2 4
  • Unc51.2 2 3
  • ATG1B 2 3
  • Unc-51 (C. Elegans)-Like Kinase 2 2
  • Unc-51-Like Kinase 2 (C. Elegans) 2
  • Unc-51-Like Kinase 2 4
  • EC 2.7.11 51
  • ULK2 5

External Ids for ULK2 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for ULK2 Gene

  • GC17M019848
  • GC17M021314
  • GC17M019578
  • GC17M019836
  • GC17M019839
  • GC17M019614
  • GC17M019674
  • GC17M019053
  • GC17M019771
  • GC17M019841

Summaries for ULK2 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for ULK2 Gene

  • This gene encodes a protein that is similar to a serine/threonine kinase in C. elegans which is involved in axonal elongation. The structure of this protein is similar to the C. elegans protein in that both proteins have an N-terminal kinase domain, a central proline/serine rich (PS) domain, and a C-terminal (C) domain. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

GeneCards Summary for ULK2 Gene

ULK2 (Unc-51 Like Autophagy Activating Kinase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Macroautophagy and Spinocerebellar ataxia. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity. An important paralog of this gene is ULK1.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for ULK2 Gene

  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK, also acts as a negative regulator of AMPK through phosphorylation of the AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652, FRS2, FRS3 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Not involved in ammonia-induced autophagy or in autophagic response of cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) to low potassium concentration. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation: may govern axon formation via Ras-like GTPase signaling and through regulation of the Rab5-mediated endocytic pathways within developing axons.

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for ULK2 Gene

Genomics for ULK2 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for ULK2 Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around ULK2 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ULK2

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the ULK2 gene promoter:
  • AP-2alpha
  • AP-2alpha isoform 2
  • AP-2alpha isoform 4
  • Elk-1
  • ER-alpha
  • NF-AT
  • NF-AT1
  • NF-AT2
  • NF-AT3
  • NF-AT4

Genomic Locations for ULK2 Gene

Genomic Locations for ULK2 Gene
chr17:19,770,828-19,867,936
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
97,109 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand
chr17:19,674,142-19,771,249
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
97,108 bases
Orientation:
Minus strand

Genomic View for ULK2 Gene

Genes around ULK2 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
ULK2 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for ULK2 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for ULK2 Gene

Proteins for ULK2 Gene

  • Protein details for ULK2 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q8IYT8-ULK2_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2
    Protein Accession:
    Q8IYT8
    Secondary Accessions:
    • A8MY69
    • O75119

    Protein attributes for ULK2 Gene

    Size:
    1036 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    112694 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with SYNGAP1 (By similarity). Component of a complex consisting of ATG13/KIAA0652, ULK1 and RB1CC1/FIP200. Interacts (via C-terminus) with ATG13/KIAA0652. Associates with the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) through an interaction with RPTOR.
    SequenceCaution:
    • Sequence=BAA31598.2; Type=Erroneous initiation; Note=Extended N-terminus.; Evidence={ECO:0000305};

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for ULK2 Gene

neXtProt entry for ULK2 Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for ULK2 Gene

Q8IYT8:
  • KEIKILKEL
  • YDAKADLWS
  • MAATLCGSPMYMAPEVIMS
  • KIADFGFAR
  • HRDLKPQN

Post-translational modifications for ULK2 Gene

  • Autophosphorylated. In response to nutrient limitation, probably phosphorylated and activated by AMPK, leading to activate autophagy.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Domains & Families for ULK2 Gene

Gene Families for ULK2 Gene

HGNC:
IUPHAR :
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for ULK2 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Unc-51-like kinase 2 (ULK2_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

Q8IYT8

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

ULK2_HUMAN :
  • The CTD-like region mediates membrane-binding and incorporation into large protein complexes.
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily.
Domain:
  • The CTD-like region mediates membrane-binding and incorporation into large protein complexes.
Family:
  • Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with ULK2: view

Function for ULK2 Gene

Molecular function for ULK2 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and a negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK, also acts as a negative regulator of AMPK through phosphorylation of the AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652, FRS2, FRS3 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Not involved in ammonia-induced autophagy or in autophagic response of cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) to low potassium concentration. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation: may govern axon formation via Ras-like GTPase signaling and through regulation of the Rab5-mediated endocytic pathways within developing axons.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-seryl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-seryl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:17989, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:9863, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11604, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:29999, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:83421, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.1;.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H(+) + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein]; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:46608, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11060, Rhea:RHEA-COMP:11605, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30013, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:61977, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=2.7.11.1;.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for ULK2 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for ULK2 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for ULK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0004672 protein kinase activity IEA --
GO:0004674 protein serine/threonine kinase activity IBA,IDA 18936157
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18936157
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ULK2: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with ULK2: view

Animal Models for ULK2 Gene

MGI Knock Outs for ULK2:
  • Ulk2 Ulk2<tm1.1Thsn>
  • Ulk2 Ulk2<tm1Lex>

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for ULK2

CRISPR Products

miRNA for ULK2 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target ULK2

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ULK2

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for ULK2 Gene

Localization for ULK2 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ULK2 Gene

Cytoplasmic vesicle membrane. Peripheral membrane protein. Note=Localizes to pre-autophagosomal membrane.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for ULK2 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 4
nucleus 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
endosome 2
lysosome 2
golgi apparatus 2
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for ULK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000407 phagophore assembly site IBA --
GO:0005829 cytosol IBA --
GO:0016020 membrane IBA --
GO:0030659 cytoplasmic vesicle membrane IEA --
GO:0031410 cytoplasmic vesicle IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ULK2: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for ULK2 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for ULK2 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with ULK2: view

Pathways by source for ULK2 Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for ULK2 Gene

Activates:
Inactivates:
Is activated by:
Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for ULK2 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000045 autophagosome assembly IBA --
GO:0006468 protein phosphorylation IEA --
GO:0006914 autophagy IDA 18936157
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007399 nervous system development IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with ULK2: view

Drugs & Compounds for ULK2 Gene

(2) Drugs for ULK2 Gene - From: DrugBank and HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
fostamatinib Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor Kinase Inhibitors 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Full agonist, Gating inhibitor, Pore Blocker, Potentiation 0

(1) Additional Compounds for ULK2 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Agonist, Full agonist, Partial agonist, Gating inhibitor, Antagonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with ULK2: view

Transcripts for ULK2 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for ULK2 Gene

2 REFSEQ mRNAs :
7 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
11 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for ULK2

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for ULK2 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4 ^ 5 ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8 ^ 9 ^ 10a · 10b · 10c ^ 11a · 11b ^ 12 ^ 13a · 13b · 13c ^ 14a · 14b ^ 15a · 15b · 15c ^ 16a · 16b · 16c ^
SP1:
SP2: -
SP3: - -
SP4: - -
SP5: -
SP6:
SP7: -
SP8: - - -
SP9: -
SP10:
SP11:

ExUns: 17 ^ 18a · 18b ^ 19 ^ 20
SP1:
SP2:
SP3:
SP4:
SP5:
SP6:
SP7:
SP8:
SP9:
SP10:
SP11:

Relevant External Links for ULK2 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ULK2

Expression for ULK2 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for ULK2 Gene

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for ULK2 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (68.3).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for ULK2 Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for ULK2 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for ULK2

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for ULK2 Gene:

Hs.168762

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for ULK2 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.9)
  • Muscle(2.1)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Skin(2.1)
  • Blood(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with ULK2: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for ULK2 Gene

Orthologs for ULK2 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for ULK2 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia ULK2 30 31
  • 99.55 (n)
OneToOne
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia ULK2 30 31
  • 92.6 (n)
OneToOne
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ulk2 30 17 31
  • 90.48 (n)
OneToOne
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ulk2 30
  • 90.41 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia ULK2 31
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia ULK2 31
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia ULK2 31
  • 84 (a)
OneToOne
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves ULK2 30 31
  • 79.34 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia ULK2 31
  • 66 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ulk2 30
  • 73.64 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.8048 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ulk2 30 31
  • 70.98 (n)
OneToOne
Dr.16298 30
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Atg1 31
  • 38 (a)
OneToMany
CG8866 32
  • 37 (a)
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea unc-51 31 32
  • 35 (a)
OneToMany
Baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes ATG1 31 33
  • 25 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for ULK2 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for ULK2 Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for ULK2 (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for ULK2 (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for ULK2: view image

Paralogs for ULK2 Gene

Paralogs for ULK2 Gene

(31) SIMAP similar genes for ULK2 Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • ULK2_HUMAN
  • K7EIU2_HUMAN
  • K7EKK9_HUMAN
  • K7EP89_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with ULK2: view

Variants for ULK2 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for ULK2 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 17 pos Variation AA Info Type
711185 Benign: not provided 19,797,537(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
711186 Benign: not provided 19,867,403(-) A/G SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
718298 Benign: not provided 19,781,102(-) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT
728214 Benign: not provided 19,797,588(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
777152 Benign: not provided 19,783,772(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for ULK2 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for ULK2 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2649888 CNV deletion 19546169
esv3640183 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1061317 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1063892 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1138505 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv2002 CNV insertion 18451855
nsv510435 OTHER sequence alteration 20534489
nsv960436 CNV duplication 23825009

Variation tolerance for ULK2 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 9.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.52; 55.58% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for ULK2 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
ULK2
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
ULK2

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for ULK2 Gene

Disorders for ULK2 Gene

Additional Disease Information for ULK2

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
Open Targets Platform

No disorders were found for ULK2 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for ULK2 Gene

Publications for ULK2 Gene

  1. Mouse ULK2, a novel member of the UNC-51-like protein kinases: unique features of functional domains. (PMID: 10557072) Yan J … Muramatsu M (Oncogene 1999) 2 3 23
  2. ULK1 inhibits the kinase activity of mTORC1 and cell proliferation. (PMID: 21795849) Jung CH … Kim DH (Autophagy 2011) 3 4
  3. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score. (PMID: 20379614) Rose JE … Uhl GR (Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 2010) 3 41
  4. Kinase-inactivated ULK proteins inhibit autophagy via their conserved C-terminal domains using an Atg13-independent mechanism. (PMID: 18936157) Chan EY … Tooze SA (Molecular and cellular biology 2009) 3 4
  5. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4

Products for ULK2 Gene

Sources for ULK2 Gene