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Aliases for TYMS Gene

Aliases for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate Synthetase 2 3 5
  • EC 4 56
  • TSase 3 4
  • TS 3 4
  • Thymidylate Synthase 3
  • HST422 3
  • TMS 3

External Ids for TYMS Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TYMS Gene

  • TS

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TYMS Gene

  • GC18U990034
  • GC18P000645
  • GC18P000647

Summaries for TYMS Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TYMS Gene

  • Thymidylate synthase catalyzes the methylation of deoxyuridylate to deoxythymidylate using, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) as a cofactor. This function maintains the dTMP (thymidine-5-prime monophosphate) pool critical for DNA replication and repair. The enzyme has been of interest as a target for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. It is considered to be the primary site of action for 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluoro-2-prime-deoxyuridine, and some folate analogs. Expression of this gene and that of a naturally occurring antisense transcript, mitochondrial enolase superfamily member 1 (GeneID:55556), vary inversely when cell-growth progresses from late-log to plateau phase. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with etiology of neoplasia, including breast cancer, and response to chemotherapy. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]

CIViC summary for TYMS Gene

GeneCards Summary for TYMS Gene

TYMS (Thymidylate Synthetase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TYMS include Rectal Neoplasm and Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Among its related pathways are One carbon pool by folate and Pyrimidine metabolism (KEGG). Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein homodimerization activity and mRNA binding.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

  • Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Tocris Summary for TYMS Gene

Gene Wiki entry for TYMS Gene

PharmGKB "VIP" Summary for TYMS Gene

Additional gene information for TYMS Gene

No data available for fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TYMS Gene

Genomics for TYMS Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TYMS Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TYMS Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH18I000656 Promoter/Enhancer 2.3 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 559.6 +0.3 328 3.6 HDGF PKNOX1 ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 YY1 TYMS TYMSOS ENSG00000263727 ENOSF1 THOC1
GH18I000679 Enhancer 1.2 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 25.2 +25.8 25753 7.9 SOX13 PKNOX1 FOXA2 SIN3A ZNF384 ZIC2 ZFHX2 LCORL RERE POLR2A ENOSF1 TYMS TYMSOS CLUL1 RNU1-109P ENSG00000265490 GC18M000704 PIR56960
GH18I000708 Promoter/Enhancer 2.5 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.1 +53.4 53424 4.7 FOXA2 PKNOX1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 CBX5 E2F8 ZNF143 ENOSF1 THOC1 TYMS TYMSOS RNU1-109P YES1 ENSG00000265490
GH18I000806 Promoter/Enhancer 2.7 EPDnew FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 6.4 +153.4 153434 8.3 HDGF PKNOX1 SMAD1 ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZNF2 IRF4 YES1 GC18P000814 ENOSF1 THOC1 ENSG00000273355 TYMS GC18M000797 RNU1-109P
GH18I000698 Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 12.9 +44.6 44634 6.6 PKNOX1 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B FEZF1 ZNF2 ZNF48 ATF7 FOS KLF13 PIR56960 GC18M000704 ENOSF1 TYMS TYMSOS RNU1-109P THOC1 ENSG00000265490
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TYMS gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TYMS Gene

Genomic Locations for TYMS Gene
15,975 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TYMS Gene

Genes around TYMS on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TYMS Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TYMS Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TYMS Gene

Proteins for TYMS Gene

  • Protein details for TYMS Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thymidylate synthase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q8WYK3
    • Q8WYK4

    Protein attributes for TYMS Gene

    313 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    35716 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Homodimer.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TYMS Gene

    Alternative splice isoforms for TYMS Gene


neXtProt entry for TYMS Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TYMS Gene


Post-translational modifications for TYMS Gene

  • Ubiquitination at posLast=7777, isoforms=2107, isoforms=3169, isoforms=2, 3292, and isoforms=2, 3308
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TYMS Gene

Domains & Families for TYMS Gene

Gene Families for TYMS Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TYMS Gene

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
  • Belongs to the thymidylate synthase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TYMS: view

Function for TYMS Gene

Molecular function for TYMS Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thymidylate synthetase,pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + dUMP = dihydrofolate + dTMP.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Contributes to the de novo mitochondrial thymidylate biosynthesis pathway.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TYMS Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TYMS Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0000900 translation repressor activity, nucleic acid binding IDA 1924359
GO:0003729 mRNA binding IEA --
GO:0004799 thymidylate synthase activity TAS 1924359
GO:0005542 folic acid binding IC 15093541
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TYMS: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TYMS

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TYMS Gene

Localization for TYMS Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion matrix. Mitochondrion inner membrane.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TYMS gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 5
cytosol 5
cytoskeleton 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA,IEA 21876188
GO:0005730 nucleolus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 21876188
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA,IEA 21876188
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane IDA,IEA 21876188
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TYMS Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TYMS: view

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P04818-TYSY_HUMAN

  • Pathway: Pyrimidine metabolism; dTTP biosynthesis.

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TYMS Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000083 regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0006206 pyrimidine nucleobase metabolic process IEA --
GO:0006231 dTMP biosynthetic process IDA 8845352
GO:0006235 dTTP biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006417 regulation of translation IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TYMS: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TYMS Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TYMS Gene

(98) Drugs for TYMS Gene - From: DrugBank, PharmGKB, ApexBio, DGIdb, FDA Approved Drugs, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Pemetrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor, Biomarker TS, DHFR,GARFT and AICARFT inhibitor, DHFR and Thymidylate synthase inhibitor, Anti-Folates 674
Raltitrexed Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor 38
Capecitabine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor, Biomarker RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor, F-pyrimidines 1402
Fluorouracil Approved Pharma Target, Enzyme, other/unknown, substrate, inhibitor RNA processing inhibitor and thymidylate synthase inhibitor 1970
Methotrexate Approved Pharma Enzyme, substrate Folate antagonist,inhibits DFHR 1603

(65) Additional Compounds for TYMS Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • (6R)-5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate
  • 5,10-Methenyltetrahydropteroylglutamate
  • 5,10-Methylene-6-Hydrofolate
  • 5,10-Methylene-6-Hydrofolic acid
  • 5,10-Methylene-THF
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylate
  • 2'-Deoxy-5'-uridylic acid
  • 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-phosphate
  • 2'-Deoxyuridylate

(5) Tocris Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Borrelidin Antiangiogenic; inhibits threonyl-tRNA synthetase 7184-60-3
Bz 423 ATP synthase inhibitor; proapoptotic 216691-95-1
Floxuridine Inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase; anticancer agent 50-91-9
Trifluorothymidine Thymidylate synthase inhibitor; induces DNA fragmentation 70-00-8
Zoledronic Acid Potent farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor 118072-93-8

(10) ApexBio Compounds for TYMS Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Doxifluridine 3094-09-5
Leucovorin Calcium Derivative of folic acid 6035-45-6
N1,N12-Diethylspermine tetrahydrochloride 113812-15-0
Nolatrexed (AG-337) Non-classical thymidylate synthase inhibitor 152946-68-4
Pemetrexed TS, DHFR,GARFT and AICARFT inhibitor 150399-23-8
Pemetrexed disodium hemipenta hydrate 357166-30-4
Raltitrexed 112887-68-0
Risedronate Sodium FPP synthase inhibitor 115436-72-1
Triacsin C 76896-80-5
Triflurdine (Viroptic) Anti-herpesvirus antiviral drug 70-00-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TYMS: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TYMS Gene

Unigene Clusters for TYMS Gene

Thymidylate synthetase:
Representative Sequences:

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TYMS

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TYMS Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TYMS Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TYMS Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TYMS Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (28.6), Fetal Liver (9.7), Lymph node (9.1), and Platelet (8.9).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TYMS Gene

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TYMS Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TYMS Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TYMS Gene

  • Bone marrow(4.5)
  • Skin(4.3)
  • Intestine(3.3)
  • Nervous system(2.8)
  • Liver(2.6)
  • Lymph node(2.5)
  • Lung(2.4)
  • Blood(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TYMS: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TYMS Gene

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TYMS Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TYMS 33 34
  • 99.25 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TYMS 33
  • 89.56 (n)
TS 34
  • 79 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TYMS 33 34
  • 88.39 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tyms 33 16 34
  • 87.19 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tyms 33
  • 86.1 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia -- 34
  • 84 (a)
-- 34
  • 76 (a)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TYMS 34
  • 82 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TYMS 33 34
  • 79.43 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TYMS 34
  • 83 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tyms 33
  • 74.17 (n)
Str.1772 33
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.17306 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tyms 33 34
  • 74.41 (n)
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.9644 33
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Ts 35 33 34
  • 64.4 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010457 33
  • 62.44 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y110A7A.4 35 33 34
  • 62.91 (n)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes CDC21 33 34 36
  • 60.8 (n)
A. gosspyii yeast
(Ashbya gossypii)
Saccharomycetes AGOS_ADR219C 33
  • 60.68 (n)
K. lactis yeast
(Kluyveromyces lactis)
Saccharomycetes KLLA0A07843g 33
  • 59.62 (n)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons THY-2 33
  • 61.54 (n)
(Glycine max)
eudicotyledons Gma.483 33
Alicante grape
(Vitis vinifera)
eudicotyledons Vvi.9056 33
(Hordeum vulgare)
Liliopsida Hv.7395 33
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os.8307 33
(Triticum aestivum)
Liliopsida Ta.29395 33
(Zea mays)
Liliopsida Zm.482 33
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.11299 34
  • 69 (a)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU10053 33
  • 61.27 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes SPAC15E1.04 33
  • 57.89 (n)
Species where no ortholog for TYMS was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)

Evolution for TYMS Gene

Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)
Gene Tree for TYMS (if available)

Paralogs for TYMS Gene Pseudogenes for TYMS Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TYMS: view

No data available for Paralogs for TYMS Gene

Variants for TYMS Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TYMS Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs11280056 drug-response, fluorouracil response - Efficacy, capecitabine response - Efficacy 673,444(+) TTAAAGTTA/TTA/TTAAAGTTAAAGTTA 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000224379 -- 657,639(+) C/T 5_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000910651 -- 671,014(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000938745 -- 672,802(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1001036973 -- 661,944(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TYMS Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3307n100 CNV gain 25217958
dgv5810n54 CNV gain 21841781
dgv967e212 CNV loss 25503493
esv1982616 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2023053 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2521731 CNV deletion 19546169
esv2716652 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716653 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716654 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2716655 CNV deletion 23290073
esv3353997 CNV duplication 20981092
esv3641496 CNV loss 21293372
esv3641497 CNV gain 21293372
esv3641503 CNV gain 21293372
esv3893055 CNV gain 25118596
esv4728 CNV loss 18987735
esv9315 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1060188 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1146664 CNV insertion 26484159
nsv482935 CNV loss 15286789
nsv528169 CNV loss 19592680
nsv576228 CNV loss 21841781
nsv576236 CNV gain 21841781
nsv576239 CNV gain 21841781
nsv576242 CNV gain 21841781
nsv833577 CNV gain+loss 17160897
nsv954107 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TYMS Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 31.3% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.23; 5.19% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TYMS Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TYMS Gene

Disorders for TYMS Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(25) MalaCards diseases for TYMS Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
rectal neoplasm
  • neoplasm of rectum
dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency
  • dihydropyrimidinuria
malignant pleural mesothelioma
  • malignant mesothelioma of pleura
  • gastrointestinal mucositis
gastrointestinal carcinoma
  • gastrointestinal neoplasm
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TYMS in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TYMS

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TYMS: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TYMS Gene

Publications for TYMS Gene

  1. Correlation between thymidylate synthase gene variants, RNA and protein levels in primary colorectal adenocarcinomas. (PMID: 20515563) Kristensen MH … Mejer J (The Journal of international medical research 2010) 3 22 44 58
  2. Folate intake along with genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase in patients with advanced gastric cancer. (PMID: 20447923) Shitara K … Matsuo K (Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2010) 3 22 44 58
  3. Immunohistochemical characterization of pyrimidine synthetic enzymes, thymidine kinase-1 and thymidylate synthase, in various types of cancer. (PMID: 20372850) Shintani M … Kamoshida S (Oncology reports 2010) 3 22 25 58
  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor intron 1 CA dinucleotide repeat polymorphism and survival of advanced gastric cancer patients treated with cetuximab plus modified FOLFOX6. (PMID: 20047592) Han SW … Kim TY (Cancer science 2010) 3 22 44 58
  5. EGF61A>G polymorphism as predictive marker of clinical outcome to first-line capecitabine and oxaliplatin in metastatic colorectal cancer. (PMID: 19850635) Spindler KL … Jakobsen A (Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology 2010) 3 22 44 58

Products for TYMS Gene

  • Addgene plasmids for TYMS

Sources for TYMS Gene

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