Aliases for TXNL1 Gene

Aliases for TXNL1 Gene

  • Thioredoxin Like 1 2 3 5
  • 32 KDa Thioredoxin-Related Protein 3 4
  • Thioredoxin-Like Protein 1 3 4
  • TRP32 3 4
  • TXNL 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Protein Li 114 3
  • Thioredoxin-Related 32 KDa Protein 3
  • Thioredoxin-Related Protein 1 3
  • Thioredoxin-Like, 32kDa 2
  • Thioredoxin-Like, 32kD 2
  • Thioredoxin-Like 1 2
  • HEL-S-114 3
  • TXL-1 3
  • Txl 3
  • TXL 4

External Ids for TXNL1 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TXNL1 Gene

  • TXNL

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TXNL1 Gene

  • GC18M052420
  • GC18M052421
  • GC18M054264
  • GC18M050981

Summaries for TXNL1 Gene

GeneCards Summary for TXNL1 Gene

TXNL1 (Thioredoxin Like 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity and disulfide oxidoreductase activity. An important paralog of this gene is TXNDC2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TXNL1 Gene

Gene Wiki entry for TXNL1 Gene

Additional gene information for TXNL1 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TXNL1 Gene

Genomics for TXNL1 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TXNL1 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TXNL1 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH18J056650 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 755.6 -0.2 -226 3.6 SIX5 ZBTB6 FOXA1 RBPJ POLR2A USF2 NR2F1 ATF1 NR2F6 CREB1 TXNL1 WDR7 lnc-FECH-3 piR-50443-186
GH18J056636 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 756.7 +13.8 13849 4.3 SP1 ZBTB40 MLX RBPJ POLR2A USF2 ATF1 CREB1 HCFC1 MYC TXNL1 lnc-FECH-3 lnc-TCF4-2
GH18J056641 Enhancer 0.9 Ensembl ENCODE 6.7 +9.8 9799 1.2 HLF ELF3 CREB1 GATAD2A RXRB RCOR2 SOX13 SAP130 FOXA2 TEAD1 TXNL1 lnc-FECH-3 lnc-TCF4-2
GH18J056627 Enhancer 0.7 Ensembl 6.6 +21.8 21800 6 ZBTB40 TEAD4 MAFK CBFA2T2 SMARCA4 ZNF316 EP300 TCF12 MAFG NCOR1 TXNL1 lnc-FECH-3 lnc-TCF4-2
GH18J056660 Enhancer 0.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl 5.3 -9.0 -9041 2.1 PRDM1 SCRT1 POLR2A FEZF1 TXNL1 WDR7 piR-50443-186
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TXNL1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TXNL1 gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • AREB6
  • ATF-2
  • c-Jun
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB
  • Meis-1
  • Meis-1a
  • Meis-1b
  • PPAR-gamma2

Genomic Locations for TXNL1 Gene

Genomic Locations for TXNL1 Gene
54,392 bases
Minus strand
54,393 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TXNL1 Gene

Genes around TXNL1 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TXNL1 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TXNL1 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TXNL1 Gene

Proteins for TXNL1 Gene

  • Protein details for TXNL1 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thioredoxin-like protein 1
    Protein Accession:

    Protein attributes for TXNL1 Gene

    289 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    32251 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Component of the 19S regulatory cap of the 26S proteasome. Interacts with PSMD14/RPN11. Interacts with, and reduces EEF1A1.

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TXNL1 Gene

neXtProt entry for TXNL1 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TXNL1 Gene

  • Ubiquitination at Lys5, Lys28, Lys102, Lys104, Lys181, and Lys279
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TXNL1 Gene

Domains & Families for TXNL1 Gene

Gene Families for TXNL1 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TXNL1 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • 32 kDa thioredoxin-related protein (TXNL1_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TXNL1: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNL1 Gene

Function for TXNL1 Gene

Molecular function for TXNL1 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Active thioredoxin with a redox potential of about -250 mV.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TXNL1 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TXNL1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0015036 disulfide oxidoreductase activity IDA 9668102
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNL1: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TXNL1: view

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TXNL1

CRISPR Products

miRNA for TXNL1 Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TXNL1

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TXNL1

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TXNL1 Gene

Localization for TXNL1 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNL1 Gene

Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=At least 85% of the cellular TXNL1 is proteasome-associated.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TXNL1 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytosol 5
nucleus 4
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TXNL1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000502 proteasome complex IEA --
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005634 nucleus IEA --
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IEA,IDA 9668102
GO:0005829 cytosol IDA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNL1: view

Pathways & Interactions for TXNL1 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for TXNL1 Gene

No Data Available

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TXNL1 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0045454 cell redox homeostasis IEA --
GO:0055114 oxidation-reduction process IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TXNL1: view

No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TXNL1 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TXNL1 Gene

(1) Additional Compounds for TXNL1 Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TXNL1: view

Transcripts for TXNL1 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TXNL1 Gene

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TXNL1

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TXNL1 Gene

ExUns: 1a · 1b ^ 2 ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b ^ 5a · 5b · 5c ^ 6 ^ 7 ^ 8a · 8b ^ 9 ^ 10 ^ 11 ^ 12a · 12b ^ 13
SP1: - -
SP2: -
SP5: -
SP6: -

Relevant External Links for TXNL1 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TXNL1 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TXNL1 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TXNL1 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TXNL1 Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TXNL1 Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TXNL1 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TXNL1 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TXNL1 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.8)
  • Blood(4.5)
  • Lung(4.5)
  • Liver(4.4)
  • Heart(2.5)
  • Muscle(2.4)
  • Lymph node(2.3)
  • Kidney(2.1)
  • Thyroid gland(2.1)
  • Spleen(2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TXNL1: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TXNL1 Gene

Orthologs for TXNL1 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TXNL1 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TXNL1 33 32
  • 99.88 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TXNL1 33 32
  • 95.85 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TXNL1 33
  • 95 (a)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TXNL1 33 32
  • 94.35 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Txnl1 17 33 32
  • 92.73 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Txnl1 32
  • 92.39 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TXNL1 33
  • 91 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TXNL1 33 32
  • 85.01 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TXNL1 33
  • 92 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia txnl1 32
  • 78.43 (n)
Str.5938 32
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii txnl1 33 32
  • 74.74 (n)
zgc55368 32
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.10705 32
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta Txl 33 32
  • 53.77 (n)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP005462 32
  • 51.52 (n)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea Y54E10A.3 33 32
  • 53.02 (n)
Y55F3AR.2 33
  • 27 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TRX1 33
  • 32 (a)
TRX2 33
  • 27 (a)
TRX3 33
  • 22 (a)
thale cress
(Arabidopsis thaliana)
eudicotyledons AT3G04780 32
  • 53.09 (n)
(Oryza sativa)
Liliopsida Os03g0795500 32
  • 51.28 (n)
fission yeast
(Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
Schizosaccharomycetes txl1 32
  • 50.61 (n)
bread mold
(Neurospora crassa)
Ascomycetes NCU02520 32
  • 46.67 (n)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.2149 33
  • 44 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TXNL1 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TXNL1 Gene

Gene Tree for TXNL1 (if available)
Gene Tree for TXNL1 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TXNL1: view image

Paralogs for TXNL1 Gene

Paralogs for TXNL1 Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TXNL1 Gene using alignment to 7 proteins:

  • G3V1K0_HUMAN
  • K7ER96_HUMAN Pseudogenes for TXNL1 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TXNL1: view

Variants for TXNL1 Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TXNL1 Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 18 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000050059 -- 56,620,578(-) G/A intron_variant
rs1000104588 -- 56,622,248(-) T/C/G intron_variant
rs1000141195 -- 56,625,541(-) G/T intron_variant
rs1000147356 -- 56,637,727(-) T/C intron_variant
rs1000258605 -- 56,600,360(-) G/T 3_prime_UTR_variant, genic_downstream_transcript_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TXNL1 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv3359n100 CNV gain 25217958
nsv1062964 CNV gain 25217958
nsv577020 CNV gain 21841781

Variation tolerance for TXNL1 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 37.2% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.58; 12.45% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TXNL1 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TXNL1 Gene

Disorders for TXNL1 Gene

Additional Disease Information for TXNL1

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for TXNL1 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TXNL1 Gene

Publications for TXNL1 Gene

  1. Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of TRP32, a novel thioredoxin-related mammalian protein of 32 kDa. (PMID: 9668102) Lee KK … Yonehara S (The Journal of biological chemistry 1998) 2 3 4 23 56
  2. Molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a human thioredoxin-like protein. (PMID: 9473519) Miranda-Vizuete A … Spyrou G (Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998) 2 3 4 23 56
  3. Solution structure of the C-terminal DUF1000 domain of the human thioredoxin-like 1 protein. (PMID: 20455272) Goroncy AK … Yokoyama S (Proteins 2010) 3 4 23 56
  4. Thioredoxin Txnl1/TRP32 is a redox-active cofactor of the 26 S proteasome. (PMID: 19349277) Andersen KM … Hartmann-Petersen R (The Journal of biological chemistry 2009) 3 4 23 56
  5. Genomic structure and chromosomal localization of human thioredoxin-like protein gene (txl). (PMID: 10826702) Miranda-Vizuete A … Spyrou G (DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 2000) 3 4 23 56

Products for TXNL1 Gene

Sources for TXNL1 Gene