This gene encodes a hexameric DNA helicase which unwinds short stretches of double-stranded DNA in the 5' to 3' direction and, along with mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein and mtDNA polymerase gamma, is thought to play a key role in mtDNA replication. The protein localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and mitochondrial nucleoids. Mutations in this gene cause infa... See more...

Aliases for TWNK Gene

Aliases for TWNK Gene

  • Twinkle MtDNA Helicase 2 3 4 5
  • PEO1 2 3 4
  • T7 Helicase-Related Protein With Intramitochondrial Nucleoid Localization 2 3
  • T7 Gp4-Like Protein With Intramitochondrial Nucleoid Localization 3 4
  • Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia 1 Protein 3 4
  • T7-Like Mitochondrial DNA Helicase 3 4
  • Twinkle Protein, Mitochondrial 3 4
  • C10orf2 3 4
  • TWINL 2 3
  • PEO 2 3
  • Infantile Onset Spinocerebellar Ataxia (Autosomal Recessive) 2
  • Chromosome 10 Open Reading Frame 2 2
  • EC 3.6.4.12 4
  • Ataxin 8 3
  • FLJ21832 2
  • TWINKLE 2
  • MTDPS7 3
  • PRLTS5 3
  • ATXN8 3
  • IOSCA 3
  • PEOA3 3
  • SANDO 3
  • SCA8 3
  • TWNK 5

External Ids for TWNK Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TWNK Gene

  • IOSCA
  • C10orf2

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TWNK Gene

  • GC10P100997
  • GC10P100998
  • GC10P100995
  • GC10P100994
  • GC10P100990
  • GC10P100991
  • GC10P100992

Summaries for TWNK Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TWNK Gene

  • This gene encodes a hexameric DNA helicase which unwinds short stretches of double-stranded DNA in the 5' to 3' direction and, along with mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein and mtDNA polymerase gamma, is thought to play a key role in mtDNA replication. The protein localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and mitochondrial nucleoids. Mutations in this gene cause infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) and are also associated with several mitochondrial depletion syndromes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

GeneCards Summary for TWNK Gene

TWNK (Twinkle MtDNA Helicase) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TWNK include Mitochondrial Dna Depletion Syndrome 7 and Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia With Mitochondrial Dna Deletions, Autosomal Dominant 3. Among its related pathways are Organelle biogenesis and maintenance and Spinocerebellar ataxia.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TWNK Gene

  • Involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) metabolism. Could function as an adenine nucleotide-dependent DNA helicase. Function inferred to be critical for lifetime maintenance of mtDNA integrity. In vitro, forms in combination with POLG, a processive replication machinery, which can use double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as template to synthesize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. May be a key regulator of mtDNA copy number in mammals.

Gene Wiki entry for TWNK Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TWNK Gene

Genomics for TWNK Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for TWNK Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TWNK on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TWNK

Genomic Locations for TWNK Gene

Genomic Locations for TWNK Gene
chr10:100,987,367-100,994,403
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
7,037 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr10:102,747,124-102,754,158
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
7,035 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TWNK Gene

Genes around TWNK on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TWNK Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TWNK Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TWNK Gene

Proteins for TWNK Gene

  • Protein details for TWNK Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Q96RR1-PEO1_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Twinkle protein, mitochondrial
    Protein Accession:
    Q96RR1
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B2CQL2
    • Q6MZX2
    • Q6PJP5
    • Q96RR0

    Protein attributes for TWNK Gene

    Size:
    684 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    77154 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Forms multimers in vitro, including hexamers. Interacts with LONP1 (PubMed:14739292). Interacts with POLG in vitro (PubMed:15167897).

    Alternative splice isoforms for TWNK Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TWNK Gene

Post-translational modifications for TWNK Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TWNK Gene

Domains & Families for TWNK Gene

Gene Families for TWNK Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Potential drug targets
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for TWNK Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TWNK Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • T7-like mitochondrial DNA helicase (PEO1_HUMAN)
  • cDNA: FLJ21832 fis, clone HEP01571 (Q9H6V3_HUMAN)
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TWNK: view

No data available for Graphical View of Domain Structure and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TWNK Gene

Function for TWNK Gene

Molecular function for TWNK Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) metabolism. Could function as an adenine nucleotide-dependent DNA helicase. Function inferred to be critical for lifetime maintenance of mtDNA integrity. In vitro, forms in combination with POLG, a processive replication machinery, which can use double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as template to synthesize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. May be a key regulator of mtDNA copy number in mammals.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
Reaction=ATP + H2O = ADP + H(+) + phosphate; Xref=Rhea:RHEA:13065, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378, ChEBI:CHEBI:30616, ChEBI:CHEBI:43474, ChEBI:CHEBI:456216; EC=3.6.4.12;.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TWNK Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TWNK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TWNK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0002020 protease binding IPI 14739292
GO:0003678 DNA helicase activity IBA 21873635
GO:0003697 single-stranded DNA binding IBA,IDA 18971204
GO:0004386 helicase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TWNK: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TWNK: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TWNK Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TWNK Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TWNK:
  • Twnk Twnk<tm1.2Lrsn>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TWNK

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TWNK

No data available for Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TWNK Gene

Localization for TWNK Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TWNK Gene

Mitochondrion matrix, mitochondrion nucleoid. Note=Colocalizes with mtDNA in mitochondrial nucleoids, a nucleoproteins complex consisting of a number of copies of proteins associated with mtDNA, probably involved in mtDNA maintenance and expression.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TWNK gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
nucleus 3
cytoskeleton 2
peroxisome 2
cytosol 2
plasma membrane 1
extracellular 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TWNK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005623 cell IEA --
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IBA 21873635
GO:0005759 mitochondrial matrix TAS --
GO:0042645 mitochondrial nucleoid IEA,IDA 18063578
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TWNK: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TWNK Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TWNK Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TWNK: view

Pathways by source for TWNK Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TWNK Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006260 DNA replication IEA --
GO:0006264 mitochondrial DNA replication IBA,NAS 12975372
GO:0006268 DNA unwinding involved in DNA replication IDA 15167897
GO:0006390 mitochondrial transcription IMP 18971204
GO:0007005 mitochondrion organization TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TWNK: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TWNK Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TWNK Gene

(3) Drugs for TWNK Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Water Approved Pharma 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist, Activator, Partial agonist, Antagonist, Full agonist, Gating inhibitor, Pore Blocker, Potentiation 0

(1) Additional Compounds for TWNK Gene - From: HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphoric acid
  • Adenosine 5'-diphosphate
  • ADENOSINE-5'-diphosphATE
  • H3ADP
  • 5'-Adenylphosphate
Agonist, Full agonist, Partial agonist, Gating inhibitor, Antagonist 58-64-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TWNK: view

Transcripts for TWNK Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TWNK Gene

5 REFSEQ mRNAs :
13 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
9 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TWNK

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TWNK

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TWNK Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TWNK Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TWNK

Expression for TWNK Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TWNK

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TWNK Gene:

Q96RR1-PEO1_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: High relative levels in skeletal muscle, testis and pancreas. Lower levels of expression in the heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, thymus, prostate, ovary, small intestine, colon and leukocytes. Expression is coregulated with MRPL43.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TWNK Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Skin(4.6)
  • Muscle(2.9)
  • Eye(2.4)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Liver(2.4)
  • Kidney(2.3)
  • Blood(2.1)
  • Intestine(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TWNK Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
Systems:
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
  • urinary
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • cranial nerve
  • ear
  • eye
  • eyelid
  • face
  • head
  • inner ear
  • jaw
  • larynx
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • middle ear
  • mouth
  • neck
  • outer ear
  • pharynx
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • tongue
  • vocal cord
Thorax:
  • breast
  • chest wall
  • clavicle
  • esophagus
  • heart
  • heart valve
  • lung
  • rib
  • rib cage
  • scapula
  • sternum
Abdomen:
  • intestine
  • kidney
  • large intestine
  • small intestine
  • stomach
Pelvis:
  • ovary
  • pelvis
  • penis
  • prostate
  • testicle
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • vulva
Limb:
  • ankle
  • arm
  • digit
  • elbow
  • femur
  • fibula
  • finger
  • foot
  • forearm
  • hand
  • hip
  • humerus
  • knee
  • lower limb
  • radius
  • shin
  • shoulder
  • thigh
  • tibia
  • toe
  • ulna
  • upper limb
  • wrist
General:
  • hair
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • skin
  • spinal column
  • spinal cord
  • vertebrae

Primer Products

No data available for mRNA expression in normal human tissues , mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression and Protein tissue co-expression partners for TWNK Gene

Orthologs for TWNK Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TWNK Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
Chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia C10orf2 31
  • 99 (a)
OneToOne
C10H10orf2 30
  • 98.77 (n)
Cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia C26H10ORF2 31
  • 89 (a)
OneToOne
C26H10orf2 30
  • 88.58 (n)
Dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia C10orf2 31
  • 88 (a)
OneToOne
C28H10orf2 30
  • 87.96 (n)
Mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Peo1 30 31
  • 84.87 (n)
OneToOne
Twnk 17
Rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Peo1 30
  • 84.41 (n)
Oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia C10orf2 31
  • 74 (a)
OneToOne
Platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia -- 31
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 71 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 69 (a)
OneToMany
-- 31
  • 68 (a)
OneToMany
Chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves PEO1 30 31
  • 67.34 (n)
OneToOne
Lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia C10orf2 31
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
Tropical Clawed Frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia LOC100491229 30
  • 66.28 (n)
Str.15313 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia Xl.34767 30
Zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii C10orf2 31
  • 62 (a)
OneToOne
peo1 30
  • 61.81 (n)
wufi04d09 30
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP010720 30
  • 59.47 (n)
Fruit Fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG5924 30 31
  • 50.46 (n)
OneToOne
Worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea F46G11.1 30 31
  • 47.6 (n)
OneToOne
Species where no ortholog for TWNK was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TWNK Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TWNK (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TWNK (if available)

Paralogs for TWNK Gene

No data available for Paralogs for TWNK Gene

Variants for TWNK Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TWNK Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
638300 Likely Pathogenic: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 7 (hepatocerebral type) 100,989,841(+) C/G MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT
678153 Benign: not provided 100,992,988(+) G/A INTRON_VARIANT
683418 Benign: not provided 100,990,176(+) GATGGCA/G INTRON_VARIANT
694394 Uncertain Significance: Perrault syndrome 5; Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 7 (hepatocerebral type) 100,989,003(+) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT
694431 Likely Pathogenic: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 7 (hepatocerebral type) 100,989,409(+) G/T MISSENSE_VARIANT,NON_CODING_TRANSCRIPT_VARIANT,INTRON_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for TWNK Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TWNK Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv467443 CNV loss 19166990
nsv517698 CNV loss 19592680
nsv831965 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for TWNK Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 7.6% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 4.10; 61.13% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TWNK Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TWNK
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TWNK

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TWNK Gene

Disorders for TWNK Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(47) MalaCards diseases for TWNK Gene - From: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, OMIM, ClinVar, GTR, Orphanet, DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

PEO1_HUMAN
  • Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant, 3 (PEOA3) [MIM:609286]: A disorder characterized by progressive weakness of ocular muscles and levator muscle of the upper eyelid. In a minority of cases, it is associated with skeletal myopathy, which predominantly involves axial or proximal muscles and which causes abnormal fatigability and even permanent muscle weakness. Ragged-red fibers and atrophy are found on muscle biopsy. A large proportion of chronic ophthalmoplegias are associated with other symptoms, leading to a multisystemic pattern of this disease. Additional symptoms are variable, and may include cataracts, hearing loss, sensory axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, hypogonadism, and parkinsonism. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:11431692, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12163192, ECO:0000269 PubMed:12921794, ECO:0000269 PubMed:15668446, ECO:0000269 PubMed:16639411, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17614277, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18396044, ECO:0000269 PubMed:18575922, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19353676, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19428252, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20479361, ECO:0000269 PubMed:20880070}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 7 (MTDPS7) [MIM:271245]: A severe disease associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Some patients are affected by progressive atrophy of the cerebellum, brain stem, the spinal cord, and sensory axonal neuropathy. Clinical features include hypotonia, athetosis, ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, sensorineural hearing deficit, sensory axonal neuropathy, epileptic encephalopathy and female hypogonadism. In some individuals liver dysfunction and multi-organ failure is present. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:16135556, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17722119, ECO:0000269 PubMed:17921179, ECO:0000269 PubMed:19853444, ECO:0000269 PubMed:22353293}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
  • Perrault syndrome 5 (PRLTS5) [MIM:616138]: A form of Perrault syndrome, a sex-influenced disorder characterized by sensorineural deafness in both males and females, and ovarian dysgenesis in females. Affected females have primary amenorrhea, streak gonads, and infertility, whereas affected males show normal pubertal development and are fertile. {ECO:0000269 PubMed:25355836}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TWNK: view

No data available for Genatlas for TWNK Gene

Publications for TWNK Gene

  1. Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia is caused by recessive mutations in mitochondrial proteins Twinkle and Twinky. (PMID: 16135556) Nikali K … Peltonen L (Human molecular genetics 2005) 2 3 4 23
  2. The clinical, histochemical, and molecular spectrum of PEO1 (Twinkle)-linked adPEO. (PMID: 20479361) Fratter C … Taylor RW (Neurology 2010) 3 4 23
  3. Molecular analysis in a family presenting with a mild form of late-onset autosomal dominant chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. (PMID: 19428252) Negro R … Petruzzella V (Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2009) 3 4 23
  4. Novel Twinkle (PEO1) gene mutations in mendelian progressive external ophthalmoplegia. (PMID: 18575922) Virgilio R … Comi GP (Journal of neurology 2008) 3 4 23
  5. Phenotype and clinical course in a family with a new de novo Twinkle gene mutation. (PMID: 18396044) Jeppesen TD … Vissing J (Neuromuscular disorders : NMD 2008) 3 4 23

Products for TWNK Gene

  • Signalway Proteins for TWNK

Sources for TWNK Gene