This gene encodes a beta tubulin protein. This protein forms a dimer with alpha tubulin and acts as a structural component of microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. [provid... See more...

Aliases for TUBB Gene

Aliases for TUBB Gene

  • Tubulin Beta Class I 2 3 5
  • Tubulin, Beta Polypeptide 2 3
  • Tubulin Beta-5 Chain 3 4
  • Tubulin Beta Chain 3 4
  • TUBB5 3 4
  • Epididymis Secretory Sperm Binding Protein 3
  • Tubulin, Beta Class I 2
  • Tubulin Beta-1 Chain 3
  • Class I Beta-Tubulin 2
  • Beta Ib Tubulin 3
  • Beta1-Tubulin 2
  • Tubulin, Beta 2
  • OK/SW-Cl.56 3
  • CDCBM6 3
  • CSCSC1 3
  • TUBB1 3
  • M40 3

External Ids for TUBB Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBB Gene

  • GC06M003138
  • GC06M003098
  • GC06P030797
  • GC06Pc30826
  • GC06P030687
  • GC06P030489

Summaries for TUBB Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TUBB Gene

  • This gene encodes a beta tubulin protein. This protein forms a dimer with alpha tubulin and acts as a structural component of microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

GeneCards Summary for TUBB Gene

TUBB (Tubulin Beta Class I) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TUBB include Cortical Dysplasia, Complex, With Other Brain Malformations 6 and Skin Creases, Congenital Symmetric Circumferential, 1. Among its related pathways are Innate Immune System and Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural molecule activity. An important paralog of this gene is TUBB4B.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TUBB Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Tocris Summary for TUBB Gene

  • Microtubules are cylindrical tubes of 20-25 nm in diameter. They are composed of protofilaments which are in turn composed of alpha- and beta-tubulin polymers. Each microtubule is polarized; at one end alpha-subunits are exposed (-) and at the other, beta-subunits are exposed (+).

Gene Wiki entry for TUBB Gene

Additional gene information for TUBB Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TUBB Gene

Genomics for TUBB Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TUBB Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TUBB Gene
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TUBB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TUBB

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TUBB gene promoter:
  • AP-1
  • GR
  • GR-alpha
  • GR-beta
  • p53
  • STAT1
  • STAT3

Genomic Locations for TUBB Gene

Genomic Locations for TUBB Gene
chr6:30,720,201-30,725,426
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
5,226 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr6:30,687,978-30,693,203
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
5,226 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TUBB Gene

Genes around TUBB on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TUBB Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TUBB Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

Proteins for TUBB Gene

  • Protein details for TUBB Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P07437-TBB5_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin beta chain
    Protein Accession:
    P07437
    Secondary Accessions:
    • P05218
    • Q8WUC1
    • Q9CY33

    Protein attributes for TUBB Gene

    Size:
    444 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49671 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Heterodimer of alpha and beta chains (PubMed:26637975). A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO (PubMed:20643351). Interacts with DIAPH1 (PubMed:23325789). Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with CFAP157 (By similarity).

    Three dimensional structures from OCA and Proteopedia for TUBB Gene

neXtProt entry for TUBB Gene

Post-translational modifications for TUBB Gene

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group (PubMed:26875866). Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold (PubMed:26875866).
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).
  • Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.
  • Ubiquitination at Lys297, Lys324, Lys362, and Lys379
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Antibody Products

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBB Gene

Domains & Families for TUBB Gene

Gene Families for TUBB Gene

HGNC:
Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Disease related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Plasma proteins
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBB Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Tubulin, beta, isoform CRA_a (Q5SU16_HUMAN)
  • TUBB protein (Q6P602_HUMAN)
  • TUBB protein (Q96B85_HUMAN)
  • TUBB protein (Q9BUU9_HUMAN)
  • Tubulin beta-5 chain (TBB5_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P07437

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TBB5_HUMAN :
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
Domain:
  • The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.
Family:
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBB: view

Function for TUBB Gene

Molecular function for TUBB Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tubulin,beta polypeptide

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TUBB Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000166 nucleotide binding IEA --
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005198 structural molecule activity TAS 12090300
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA,IBA 21873635
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 18457437
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBB: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TUBB Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

miRNA for TUBB Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TUBB

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TUBB

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TUBB Gene

Localization for TUBB Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBB Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBB gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 5
nucleus 5
extracellular 4
lysosome 4
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
mitochondrion 2
peroxisome 1
endoplasmic reticulum 1
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005576 extracellular region TAS --
GO:0005634 nucleus HDA,IEA 21630459
GO:0005641 nuclear envelope lumen IDA 19567321
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IDA 23178297
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton TAS 16130169
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB: view

Pathways & Interactions for TUBB Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBB: view

Pathways by source for TUBB Gene

10 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for TUBB Gene
  • Cell adhesion Gap junctions
  • Cell cycle_Spindle assembly and chromosome separation
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Keratin filaments
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Reverse signaling by ephrin B
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for TUBB Gene

SIGNOR curated interactions for TUBB Gene

Inactivates:
Is activated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBB Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000086 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS --
GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization IBA 21873635
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle IBA 21873635
GO:0007010 cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IEA,TAS 12090300
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBB: view

Drugs & Compounds for TUBB Gene

(79) Drugs for TUBB Gene - From: DrugBank, ApexBio, DGIdb, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Colchicine Approved Pharma Antagonist, Target, inhibitor, binder Tubulin Inhibitor 137
Vinblastine Approved Pharma Target, adduct, inhibitor 216
Vincristine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, inhibitor, binder Microtubule disrupter,antitumor agent 1058
Docetaxel Approved, Investigational Pharma Inhibition, inhibitor, Biomarker Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor, Tubulin and VEGF inhibitor, Taxanes 2273
Vinorelbine Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, antagonist, inhibitor 435

(51) Additional Compounds for TUBB Gene - From: Novoseek and Tocris

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Noscapine hydrochloride
912-60-7
taxol
Agonist 33069-62-4

(5) Tocris Compounds for TUBB Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
MPC 6827 hydrochloride Inhibitor of microtubule polymerization; antimitotic and antitumor 917369-31-4
Nocodazole Microtubule inhibitor 31430-18-9
Noscapine hydrochloride Tubulin inhibitor; induces apoptosis 912-60-7
Taxol Promotes assembly and inhibits disassembly of microtubules 33069-62-4
Vinblastine sulfate Disrupts microtubules 143-67-9

(9) ApexBio Compounds for TUBB Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Albendazole Oxide 54029-12-8
Combretastatin A4 117048-59-6
Docetaxel Microtubulin disassembly inhibitor 114977-28-5
Epothilone A Microtubule stabilizing macrolide 152044-53-6
Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) Microtubule stabilizing macrolide 152044-54-7
MPC 6827 hydrochloride Potent microtubule inhibitor 917369-31-4
Plinabulin (NPI-2358) Tumor cell lines inhibitor 714272-27-2
Vc-MMAD Potent tubulin inhibitor 1401963-17-4
Vinflunine Tartrate 1201898-17-0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBB: view

Drug Products

Transcripts for TUBB Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBB Gene

6 REFSEQ mRNAs :
42 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
4 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

  • Addgene plasmids for TUBB

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBB Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TUBB Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TUBB

Expression for TUBB Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TUBB Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TUBB Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Bone (22.2) and Bone marrow stromal cell (7.6).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for TUBB Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TUBB Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TUBB

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBB Gene:

Hs.636480

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TUBB Gene:

P07437-TBB5_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TUBB Gene

  • Liver(4.5)
  • Nervous system(4.5)
  • Lung(4.4)
  • Eye(4.3)
  • Muscle(4.2)
  • Blood(2.6)
  • Heart(2)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TUBB Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
Systems:
  • nervous
  • skeleton
Regions:
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • cerebellum
  • head
  • skull
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TUBB: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues for TUBB Gene

Orthologs for TUBB Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of eukaryotes.

Orthologs for TUBB Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBB5 31
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
TUBB 30
  • 92.27 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBB 31
  • 100 (a)
OneToOne
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBB 31 30
  • 99.85 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TUBB 31 30
  • 92.27 (n)
OneToOne
platypus
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TUBB 31
  • 92 (a)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubb5 17 31 30
  • 91.44 (n)