Aliases for TUBAL3 Gene

Aliases for TUBAL3 Gene

  • Tubulin Alpha Like 3 2 3 5
  • Tubulin Alpha Chain-Like 3 3 4
  • Tubulin, Alpha-Like 3 2

External Ids for TUBAL3 Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TUBAL3 Gene

  • GC10M005390

Summaries for TUBAL3 Gene

GeneCards Summary for TUBAL3 Gene

TUBAL3 (Tubulin Alpha Like 3) is a Protein Coding gene. Among its related pathways are Gap junction and Chaperonin-mediated protein folding. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include GTP binding and structural constituent of cytoskeleton. An important paralog of this gene is TUBA1C.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TUBAL3 Gene

  • Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).

Additional gene information for TUBAL3 Gene

No data available for Entrez Gene Summary , CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TUBAL3 Gene

Genomics for TUBAL3 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TUBAL3 Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TUBAL3 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH10J005402 Promoter/Enhancer 1.5 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 516.5 +0.9 909 3 TOE1 MYC TAF9B ZNF316 ARNT MYNN GABPA TRIM28 MAX ZNF592 TUBAL3 UCN3 piR-31321-001
GH10J005486 Promoter/Enhancer 1.4 EPDnew ENCODE dbSUPER 509.3 -83.5 -83454 4.5 ZNF217 ZFX CLOCK KLF4 RFX1 MYC GATAD2B CTBP1 SIN3A ESRRA TUBAL3 CALML3-AS1 ENSG00000256462 CALML3 CALML5 UCN3 lnc-CALML5-8 piR-30444-030
GH10J005444 Promoter/Enhancer 2.6 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 16.7 -43.0 -42993 7.2 NRF1 TCF12 MYC USF1 POLR2G NCOR1 GTF2E2 EP300 ZIC2 POLR2A NET1 TUBAL3 AKR1E2 CALML5 CALML3 CALML3-AS1 ENSG00000256462 ASB13 NRBF2P5 UCN3
GH10J005433 Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 28.3 -29.3 -29271 2.6 CTCF NCOR1 REST RCOR1 RAD21 SKI TRIM22 SMC3 FOXA2 ZNF384 TUBAL3 UCN3 piR-30287 NET1 NONHSAG005096.2 piR-32559-035
GH10J005411 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas 13.6 -8.3 -8271 2.6 HNRNPK SIN3A POLR2G SP1 PHF8 ZFX ZIC2 POLR2A ZBTB26 TRIM28 NET1 NONHSAG005096.2 TUBAL3 UCN3 CALML5 piR-30287
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TUBAL3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TUBAL3

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TUBAL3 gene promoter:
  • C/EBPalpha
  • E2F
  • E2F-1
  • GATA-1
  • Gfi-1
  • Lmo2
  • NF-1
  • NF-1/L
  • STAT5B
  • YY1

Genomic Locations for TUBAL3 Gene

Genomic Locations for TUBAL3 Gene
11,733 bases
Minus strand
11,733 bases
Minus strand

Genomic View for TUBAL3 Gene

Genes around TUBAL3 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TUBAL3 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TUBAL3 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TUBAL3 Gene

Proteins for TUBAL3 Gene

  • Protein details for TUBAL3 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin alpha chain-like 3
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • B4DKL2
    • Q4QQJ5
    • Q9H6Z0

    Protein attributes for TUBAL3 Gene

    446 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    49909 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Dimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells.

    Alternative splice isoforms for TUBAL3 Gene


neXtProt entry for TUBAL3 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TUBAL3 Gene

  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold.
  • Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear.
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TUBAL3 Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TUBAL3 Gene

Domains & Families for TUBAL3 Gene

Gene Families for TUBAL3 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TUBAL3 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Tubulin alpha chain-like 3 (TBAL3_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
  • Belongs to the tubulin family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TUBAL3: view

Function for TUBAL3 Gene

Molecular function for TUBAL3 Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain (By similarity).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TUBAL3 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TUBAL3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0003924 GTPase activity IEA --
GO:0005200 structural constituent of cytoskeleton IBA 21873635
GO:0005525 GTP binding IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBAL3: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TUBAL3: view

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TUBAL3 Gene

Localization for TUBAL3 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBAL3 Gene

Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TUBAL3 gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 4
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 1
nucleus 0

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TUBAL3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005737 cytoplasm IBA 21873635
GO:0005856 cytoskeleton IEA --
GO:0005874 microtubule IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBAL3: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TUBAL3 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TUBAL3 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for TUBAL3 Gene

SuperPathway Contained pathways
1 Development Slit-Robo signaling
2 Cooperation of Prefoldin and TriC/CCT in actin and tubulin folding
3 Chaperonin-mediated protein folding
4 Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments
5 Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal Pathway
genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TUBAL3: view

Pathways by source for TUBAL3 Gene

10 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathways for TUBAL3 Gene
  • Cell adhesion Gap junctions
  • Cell cycle_Spindle assembly and chromosome separation
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Keratin filaments
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Neurofilaments
  • Cytoskeleton remodeling Reverse signaling by ephrin B

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TUBAL3 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization IBA 21873635
GO:0000278 mitotic cell cycle IBA 21873635
GO:0007017 microtubule-based process IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TUBAL3: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TUBAL3 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TUBAL3 Gene

(1) Drugs for TUBAL3 Gene - From: HMDB

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Guanosine triphosphate Experimental Pharma 0
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TUBAL3: view

Transcripts for TUBAL3 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TUBAL3 Gene

6 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
2 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TUBAL3 Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b ^ 3 ^ 4a · 4b
SP2: -

Relevant External Links for TUBAL3 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for TUBAL3 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TUBAL3 Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TUBAL3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Colon - Transverse (x19.1), Small Intestine - Terminal Ileum (x14.2), and Kidney - Cortex (x8.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TUBAL3 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Brain (44.1).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for TUBAL3 Gene

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TUBAL3

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TUBAL3 Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TUBAL3 Gene

  • Intestine(4.2)
  • Nervous system(4.2)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TUBAL3: view

No data available for mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TUBAL3 Gene

Orthologs for TUBAL3 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TUBAL3 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TUBAL3 31 30
  • 99.1 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TUBAL3 31 30
  • 84.68 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tubal3 17 31 30
  • 81.76 (n)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tubal3 30
  • 81.5 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TUBAL3 31
  • 79 (a)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TUBAL3 31
  • 72 (a)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta alphaTub67C 31
  • 63 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea tba-7 31
  • 69 (a)
tba-6 31
  • 67 (a)
tba-8 31
  • 66 (a)
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes TUB3 31
  • 65 (a)
sea squirt
(Ciona savignyi)
Ascidiacea CSA.7910 31
  • 69 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TUBAL3 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • tropical clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TUBAL3 Gene

Gene Tree for TUBAL3 (if available)
Gene Tree for TUBAL3 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TUBAL3: view image

Paralogs for TUBAL3 Gene

Variants for TUBAL3 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TUBAL3 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 10 pos Variation AA Info Type
716803 Likely Benign: not provided 5,395,390(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
770203 Benign: not provided 5,393,841(-) G/A SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
770759 Benign: not provided 5,394,387(-) C/T SYNONYMOUS_VARIANT
776491 Benign: not provided 5,394,453(-) C/G MISSENSE_VARIANT
806432 Uncertain Significance: not provided 5,394,020(-) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for TUBAL3 Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TUBAL3 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
nsv1045141 CNV gain 25217958
nsv549886 CNV loss 21841781

Variation tolerance for TUBAL3 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 91.7% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 5.06; 68.79% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TUBAL3 Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TUBAL3 Gene

Disorders for TUBAL3 Gene

Additional Disease Information for TUBAL3

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for TUBAL3 Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TUBAL3 Gene

Publications for TUBAL3 Gene

  1. Coeliac disease-associated risk variants in TNFAIP3 and REL implicate altered NF-kappaB signalling. (PMID: 19240061) Trynka G … Wijmenga C (Gut 2009) 3 41 54
  2. BAP1 regulation of the key adaptor protein NCoR1 is critical for γ-globin gene repression. (PMID: 30463901) Yu L … Engel JD (Genes & development 2018) 3 54
  3. VIRMA mediates preferential m6A mRNA methylation in 3'UTR and near stop codon and associates with alternative polyadenylation. (PMID: 29507755) Yue Y … Liu J (Cell discovery 2018) 3 54
  4. The HIV-1 Tat protein recruits a ubiquitin ligase to reorganize the 7SK snRNP for transcriptional activation. (PMID: 29845934) Faust TB … Frankel AD (eLife 2018) 3 54
  5. An AP-MS- and BioID-compatible MAC-tag enables comprehensive mapping of protein interactions and subcellular localizations. (PMID: 29568061) Liu X … Varjosalo M (Nature communications 2018) 3 54

Products for TUBAL3 Gene

Sources for TUBAL3 Gene