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Aliases for TTL Gene

Aliases for TTL Gene

  • Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase 2 3 5
  • EC 4 56
  • Tubulin--Tyrosine Ligase 3
  • 2410003M22Rik 3

External Ids for TTL Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TTL Gene

  • GC02P113146
  • GC02P113334
  • GC02P112956
  • GC02P113239
  • GC02P105693
  • GC02P112545
  • GC02P112673
  • GC02P112821
  • GC02P112906
  • GC02P113129

Summaries for TTL Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TTL Gene

  • TTL is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the posttranslational modification of alpha-tubulin (see MIM 602529). Alpha-tubulin within assembled microtubules is detyrosinated over time at the C terminus. After microtubule disassembly, TTL restores the tyrosine residues and consequently participates in a cycle of tubulin detyrosination and tyrosination (Erck et al., 2003 [PubMed 14571137]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GeneCards Summary for TTL Gene

TTL (Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase) is a Protein Coding gene. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include tubulin-tyrosine ligase activity.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TTL Gene

  • Catalyzes the post-translational addition of a tyrosine to the C-terminal end of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin.

Additional gene information for TTL Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TTL Gene

Genomics for TTL Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TTL Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TTL Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH02I112480 Promoter/Enhancer 2 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 556.3 +0.2 158 3.7 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ARID4B SIN3A FEZF1 DMAP1 ZBTB7B YY1 TTL RGPD8 POLR1B ENSG00000207383 CHCHD5 ENSG00000243389
GH02I112890 Enhancer 1.1 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 1.1 +409.4 409418 1.9 NFIB MAFG CEBPG ZEB2 JUND ZNF316 NFIC HSF1 NFE2 FOS IL1B IL1RN IL36G IL1A CKAP2L RNU6-1180P IL36B IL36RN TTL PIR39579
GH02I112541 Promoter/Enhancer 2.1 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE 0.2 +60.4 60425 2.9 HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A DMAP1 YY1 POLR2B POLR1B LOC105373562 CHCHD5 ANAPC1 RGPD8 RPS20P11 TMEM87B ENSG00000207383 ENSG00000243389 ZC3H8
GH02I112493 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 0.4 +12.0 12012 1.5 MEIS2 TFAP4 FOXA2 SAP130 SIN3A FOSL1 POLR2A FOSL2 NFE2 FOS RGPD8 POLR1B CHCHD5 IL37 TTL
GH02I112509 Enhancer 0.5 Ensembl 0.3 +27.5 27547 0.2 LEF1 FOXK2 MNT ZBTB33 TAF7 POLR1B TTL
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TTL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TTL gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TTL Gene

Genomic Locations for TTL Gene
59,586 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TTL Gene

Genes around TTL on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TTL Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TTL Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TTL Gene

Proteins for TTL Gene

  • Protein details for TTL Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Tubulin--tyrosine ligase
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q585T3
    • Q7Z302
    • Q8N426

    Protein attributes for TTL Gene

    377 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    43212 Da
    Name=K(+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:29103;
    Name=Mg(2+); Xref=ChEBI:CHEBI:18420;
    Quaternary structure:
    • Monomer.

neXtProt entry for TTL Gene

Selected DME Specific Peptides for TTL Gene


Post-translational modifications for TTL Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TTL Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

Domains & Families for TTL Gene

Gene Families for TTL Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • Enzymes
  • Predicted intracellular proteins

Protein Domains for TTL Gene


Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TTL Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tubulin--tyrosine ligase family.
  • Belongs to the tubulin--tyrosine ligase family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TTL: view

Function for TTL Gene

Molecular function for TTL Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
tetracycline transporter-like
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity:
ATP + detyrosinated alpha-tubulin + L-tyrosine = alpha-tubulin + ADP + phosphate.
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Catalyzes the post-translational addition of a tyrosine to the C-terminal end of detyrosinated alpha-tubulin.

Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) for TTL Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TTL Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TTL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004835 tubulin-tyrosine ligase activity IMP 25908662
GO:0005524 ATP binding IEA --
GO:0016874 ligase activity IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TTL: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TTL: view

Animal Models for TTL Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TTL:

miRNA for TTL Gene

miRTarBase miRNAs that target TTL

Clone Products

No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TTL Gene

Localization for TTL Gene

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TTL gene
Compartment Confidence
cytoskeleton 3
nucleus 1
cytosol 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Nucleoplasm (2)
  • Vesicles (2)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TTL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005623 cell IMP 25908662
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TTL: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TTL Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TTL Gene

No Data Available

SIGNOR curated interactions for TTL Gene

Is inactivated by:

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TTL Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0000226 microtubule cytoskeleton organization IEA --
GO:0006464 cellular protein modification process IEA --
GO:0018166 C-terminal protein-tyrosinylation IMP 25908662
GO:0030516 regulation of axon extension IEA --
GO:0045931 positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle IMP 25908662
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TTL: view

No data available for Pathways by source for TTL Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TTL Gene

(6) Drugs for TTL Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Phosphoric acid Approved Pharma 0
Potassium Approved, Investigational Pharma 0
L-Tyrosine Approved, Investigational Nutra 0
Magnesium Approved Nutra 0
ATP Investigational Nutra Agonist 0

(3) Additional Compounds for TTL Gene - From: HMDB and Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
  • Adenosindiphosphorsaeure
  • Adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine diphosphate
  • Adenosine pyrophosphate
  • Adenosine-5'-diphosphate
Full agonist, Agonist 58-64-0
  • NFB Orthophosphate
  • O-Phosphoric acid
  • Ortho-phosphate
  • Orthophosphate (PO43-)
  • Orthophosphate(3-)
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TTL: view

Transcripts for TTL Gene

Unigene Clusters for TTL Gene

Tubulin tyrosine ligase:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TTL Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TTL Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TTL Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TTL Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TTL Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Fetal Brain (31.6), Frontal cortex (24.7), and Retina (8.7).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, PaxDb, MaxQB, and MOPED for TTL Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TTL Gene

- Elite partner

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TTL Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TTL Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TTL Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TTL: view

No data available for mRNA differential expression in normal tissues , mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt and Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TTL Gene

Orthologs for TTL Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals and fungi.

Orthologs for TTL Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TTL 33 34
  • 98.59 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TTL 33 34
  • 91.69 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TTL 33 34
  • 90.19 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TTL 34
  • 89 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Ttl 33
  • 88.86 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Ttl 33 16 34
  • 88.77 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TTL 34
  • 86 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TTL 33 34
  • 79.13 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TTL 34
  • 86 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia ttl 33
  • 74.2 (n)
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii ttl 33 34
  • 69.41 (n)
Dr.11411 33
baker's yeast
(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Saccharomycetes PBY1 34 36
  • 9 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TTL was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)

Evolution for TTL Gene

Gene Tree for TTL (if available)
Gene Tree for TTL (if available)

Paralogs for TTL Gene Pseudogenes for TTL Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TTL: view

No data available for Paralogs for TTL Gene

Variants for TTL Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TTL Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 02 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs1000002196 -- 112,520,692(+) T/C intron_variant
rs1000245041 -- 112,529,036(+) A/G 3_prime_UTR_variant
rs1000324775 -- 112,514,346(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000393507 -- 112,490,369(+) G/A intron_variant
rs1000453765 -- 112,502,443(+) C/T intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TTL Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv3584018 CNV loss 25503493

Variation tolerance for TTL Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 21.9% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 1.02; 20.91% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TTL Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TTL Gene

Disorders for TTL Gene

Additional Disease Information for TTL

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology

No disorders were found for TTL Gene.

No data available for MalaCards , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TTL Gene

Publications for TTL Gene

  1. Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis. (PMID: 25908662) Barisic M … Maiato H (Science (New York, N.Y.) 2015) 3 4 58
  2. Evidence for genes on chromosome 2 contributing to alcohol dependence with conduct disorder and suicide attempts. (PMID: 20468071) Dick DM … Bierut L (American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2010) 3 44 58
  3. The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). (PMID: 15489334) Gerhard DS … MGC Project Team (Genome research 2004) 3 4 58
  4. Cloning and genomic organization of the TTL gene on mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 2q13. (PMID: 14571137) Erck C … Wehland J (Cytogenetic and genome research 2003) 3 22 58
  5. Tubulin detyrosination is a frequent occurrence in breast cancers of poor prognosis. (PMID: 11431336) Mialhe A … Job D (Cancer research 2001) 2 3 58

Products for TTL Gene

Sources for TTL Gene

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