Present mainly in the mitochondrial compartment of peripheral tissues, the protein encoded by this gene interacts with some benzodiazepines and has different affinities than its endogenous counterpart. The protein is a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have bee... See more...

Aliases for TSPO Gene

Aliases for TSPO Gene

  • Translocator Protein 2 3 4 5
  • Peripheral-Type Benzodiazepine Receptor 3 4
  • Mitochondrial Benzodiazepine Receptor 3 4
  • BZRP 3 4
  • PKBS 3 4
  • MBR 3 4
  • PBR 3 4
  • Putative Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor-Related Protein 4
  • Peripheral-Type Benzodiazepine Receptor/Recognition Site 2
  • Benzodiazepine Peripheral Binding Site 3
  • Benzodiazapine Receptor (Peripheral) 2
  • Translocator Protein (18kDa) 2
  • BPBS 3
  • PTBR 3
  • MDRC 3
  • Pk18 3
  • PBRS 4
  • DBI 3
  • IBP 3
  • PBS 3

External Ids for TSPO Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TSPO Gene

  • BZRP

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TSPO Gene

  • GC22P041877
  • GC22P043547
  • GC22P026505

Summaries for TSPO Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TSPO Gene

  • Present mainly in the mitochondrial compartment of peripheral tissues, the protein encoded by this gene interacts with some benzodiazepines and has different affinities than its endogenous counterpart. The protein is a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported; one of the variants lacks an internal exon and is considered non-coding, and the other variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GeneCards Summary for TSPO Gene

TSPO (Translocator Protein) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TSPO include Hepatic Encephalopathy and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Apoptotic Pathways in Synovial Fibroblasts. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include cholesterol binding and androgen binding. An important paralog of this gene is TSPO2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary for TSPO Gene

  • Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).

Gene Wiki entry for TSPO Gene

Additional gene information for TSPO Gene

No data available for CIViC Summary , Tocris Summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TSPO Gene

Genomics for TSPO Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TSPO Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TSPO Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
Score
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH22J043150 Promoter/Enhancer 1.9 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 534.9 +1.1 1087 4.4 CTCF ZSCAN5C ZNF639 POLR2A ZBTB26 MYC MXI1 ZNF341 RBM25 OSR2 TSPO piR-60051-071
GH22J043154 Enhancer 1 FANTOM5 ENCODE dbSUPER 34.3 +4.2 4175 1.5 JUND RBM25 FOS MEF2B ZFHX2 BCOR EBF1 IKZF1 SCRT1 KLF1 TSPO ARFGAP3 PACSIN2 piR-60051-071
GH22J043163 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 21.2 +13.3 13295 3.4 NRF1 ZBTB17 POLR2G PBX2 SPI1 MNT ZBTB48 SUPT5H POLR2A CTCF TSPO MCAT SERHL2 piR-60051-071
GH22J043110 Promoter/Enhancer 1.7 EPDnew Ensembl ENCODE dbSUPER 11.8 -40.8 -40813 3 USF1 SP1 CTCF ZIC2 POLR2A ZBTB10 ZBTB26 SAP30 EZH2 HDAC2 BIK MCAT TSPO ARFGAP3 lnc-TTLL1-2
GH22J043103 Enhancer 1.6 FANTOM5 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 11.9 -47.3 -47293 2 ZBTB11 TCF7 TRIM28 REST HES1 USF2 TOE1 TGIF2 CTBP1 JUN ARFGAP3 MCAT TSPO CYB5R3 BIK CYP2D7 lnc-TTLL1-2
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TSPO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cistromic (ChIP-Seq) regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TSPO

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TSPO gene promoter:
  • CREB
  • deltaCREB

Genomic Locations for TSPO Gene

Genomic Locations for TSPO Gene
chr22:43,151,514-43,163,242
(GRCh38/hg38)
Size:
11,729 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand
chr22:43,547,520-43,559,248
(GRCh37/hg19)
Size:
11,729 bases
Orientation:
Plus strand

Genomic View for TSPO Gene

Genes around TSPO on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TSPO Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TSPO Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TSPO Gene

Proteins for TSPO Gene

  • Protein details for TSPO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    B1AH88-TSPOB_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Putative peripheral benzodiazepine receptor-related protein
    Protein Accession:
    B1AH88
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q13849
    • Q6IAZ7

    Protein attributes for TSPO Gene

    Size:
    102 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    10537 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available
    Miscellaneous:
    • [Isoform 2]: The relatively low levels of the corresponding mRNA suggest that it might represent errors of the splicing machinery. In addition, isoform 2 is derived from a different reading frame, compared to isoform 1 and lacks homolog support.

    Alternative splice isoforms for TSPO Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:
  • Protein details for TSPO Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    P30536-TSPO_HUMAN
    Recommended name:
    Translocator protein
    Protein Accession:
    P30536
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q53Y59
    • Q6ICF9
    • Q96TF6

    Protein attributes for TSPO Gene

    Size:
    169 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    18828 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    • Interacts with TSPOAP1 (By similarity). May interact with STAR (By similarity). Interacts with MOST-1.

    Alternative splice isoforms for TSPO Gene

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

neXtProt entry for TSPO Gene

Post-translational modifications for TSPO Gene

  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus
  • Modification sites at neXtProt

Other Protein References for TSPO Gene

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TSPO Gene

Domains & Families for TSPO Gene

Gene Families for TSPO Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Cancer-related genes
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for TSPO Gene

InterPro:
ProtoNet:

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TSPO Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (O76068_HUMAN)
  • Peripheral-type Benzodiazepine Receptor (Q8N167_HUMAN)
  • Peripheral-type Benzodiazepine Receptor (Q8N730_HUMAN)
  • Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (TSPOA_HUMAN)
  • Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor-related protein (TSPOB_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry

P30536

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:

TSPO_HUMAN :
  • Belongs to the TspO/BZRP family.
Family:
  • Belongs to the TspO/BZRP family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TSPO: view

Function for TSPO Gene

Molecular function for TSPO Gene

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Can bind protoporphyrin IX and may play a role in the transport of porphyrins and heme (By similarity). Promotes the transport of cholesterol across mitochondrial membranes and may play a role in lipid metabolism (PubMed:24814875), but its precise physiological role is controversial. It is apparently not required for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Was initially identified as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor; can also bind isoquinoline carboxamides (PubMed:1847678).

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TSPO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TSPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005497 androgen binding IEA --
GO:0005515 protein binding IPI 17143515
GO:0008503 benzodiazepine receptor activity IEA,TAS --
GO:0015485 cholesterol binding TAS 16822554
GO:0044325 ion channel binding IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TSPO: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TSPO: view

Animal Models for TSPO Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TSPO:
  • Tspo Tspo<tm1.1Guwu>
  • Tspo Tspo<tm1b(EUCOMM)Wtsi>

Animal Model Products

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TSPO

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Human Phenotype Ontology , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TSPO Gene

Localization for TSPO Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TSPO Gene

Mitochondrion membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

COMPARTMENTS
Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TSPO gene
Compartment Confidence
mitochondrion 5
endoplasmic reticulum 4
extracellular 3
nucleus 3
cytosol 3
plasma membrane 2
cytoskeleton 2
peroxisome 2
lysosome 2
endosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Subcellular locations from the

Human Protein Atlas (HPA)
  • Mitochondria (3)
  • Cytosol (1)
  • Vesicles (1)
See all subcellular structures

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TSPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IEA --
GO:0005741 mitochondrial outer membrane NAS,TAS --
GO:0005783 endoplasmic reticulum IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IBA 21873635
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TSPO: view

Pathways & Interactions for TSPO Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TSPO: view

Pathways by source for TSPO Gene

1 PharmGKB pathway for TSPO Gene
1 GeneGo (Thomson Reuters) pathway for TSPO Gene
  • Cholesterol and Sphingolipids transport / Distribution to the intracellular membrane compartments (normal and CF)
2 Qiagen pathways for TSPO Gene
  • Cellular Apoptosis Pathway
  • Mitochondrial Apoptosis
2 Cell Signaling Technology pathways for TSPO Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TSPO Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0006626 protein targeting to mitochondrion TAS 1326278
GO:0006694 steroid biosynthetic process IEA --
GO:0006700 C21-steroid hormone biosynthetic process TAS --
GO:0006783 heme biosynthetic process TAS 16822554
GO:0006811 ion transport IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TSPO: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TSPO Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TSPO Gene

(97) Drugs for TSPO Gene - From: DrugBank, ClinicalTrials, DGIdb, HMDB, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Pharma Target, other/unknown, agonist 37
Flunitrazepam Approved, Illicit Pharma Full agonist, Allosteric regulator, Target, agonist 0
Lorazepam Approved Pharma Target, other, agonist 140
Triazolam Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, other, agonist 15
Zaleplon Approved, Illicit, Investigational Pharma Full agonist, Allosteric regulator, Target, other, agonist 23

(36) Additional Compounds for TSPO Gene - From: Novoseek and HMDB

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs
Alpha-hydroxyalprazolam
37115-43-8
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TSPO: view

Transcripts for TSPO Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TSPO Gene

4 REFSEQ mRNAs :
14 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

CRISPR Products

Inhibitory RNA Products

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TSPO

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TSPO Gene

ExUns: 1 ^ 2a · 2b · 2c ^ 3a · 3b · 3c ^ 4 ^ 5a · 5b · 5c
SP1: - - -
SP2: -
SP3: -
SP4: - - - - - -
SP5:

Relevant External Links for TSPO Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
TSPO

Expression for TSPO Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TSPO Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TSPO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Whole Blood (x13.6).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TSPO Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Monocytes (15.0) and Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (8.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB, MaxQB, and MOPED for TSPO Gene



Protein tissue co-expression partners for TSPO Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TSPO

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TSPO Gene:

Hs.202

mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TSPO Gene:

B1AH88-TSPOB_HUMAN
Tissue specificity: Ubiquitous.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TSPO Gene

  • Nervous system(4.7)
  • Lung(3.3)
  • Blood(3.1)
  • Skin(2.8)
  • Adrenal gland(2.7)
  • Bone marrow(2.5)
  • Intestine(2.5)
  • Kidney(2.5)
  • Heart(2.4)
  • Muscle(2.3)
  • Spleen(2.3)
  • Liver(2.1)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TSPO: view

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TSPO Gene

Orthologs for TSPO Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TSPO Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TSPO 31 30
  • 98.82 (n)
OneToOne
dog
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TSPO 31 30
  • 85.8 (n)
OneToOne
cow
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TSPO 31 30
  • 82.45 (n)
OneToOne
mouse
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Tspo 17 31 30
  • 81.66 (n)
rat
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Tspo 30
  • 81.26 (n)
oppossum
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TSPO 31
  • 67 (a)
OneToOne
chicken
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TSPO 31 30
  • 63.33 (n)
OneToOne
lizard
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TSPO 31
  • 59 (a)
OneToOne
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia tspo 30
  • 67.94 (n)
Str.1193 30
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia bzrp-A-prov 30
zebrafish
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii tspo 31 30
  • 60.61 (n)
OneToMany
rainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Actinopterygii Omy.7981 30
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta AgaP_AGAP000426 30
  • 57.33 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta CG2789 31 30
  • 56.82 (n)
OneToMany
worm
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C41G7.9 31
  • 25 (a)
OneToMany
Species where no ortholog for TSPO was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TSPO Gene

ENSEMBL:
Gene Tree for TSPO (if available)
TreeFam:
Gene Tree for TSPO (if available)
Aminode:
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TSPO: view image

Paralogs for TSPO Gene

Paralogs for TSPO Gene

(2) SIMAP similar genes for TSPO Gene using alignment to 4 proteins:

  • TSPOA_HUMAN
  • TSPOB_HUMAN
  • B1AH87_HUMAN
  • J3QLD3_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TSPO: view

Variants for TSPO Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TSPO Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 22 pos Variation AA Info Type
782174 Likely Benign: not provided 43,159,279(+) C/T MISSENSE_VARIANT
rs6971 -. - p.His53Argp.Thr147Ala
rs6972 - p.Arg162His
rs9333342 - p.Glu169Gln

Additional dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for TSPO Gene

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TSPO Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
dgv2464n106 CNV deletion 24896259
esv1998181 CNV deletion 18987734
esv2671621 CNV deletion 23128226
esv2724299 CNV deletion 23290073
esv2762124 CNV gain 21179565
esv33816 CNV gain 17666407
esv3468 CNV loss 18987735
esv3558201 CNV deletion 23714750
esv8520 CNV loss 19470904
nsv1072640 CNV deletion 25765185
nsv1132918 CNV insertion 24896259
nsv459890 CNV gain 19166990
nsv520927 CNV loss 19592680
nsv589087 CNV gain 21841781
nsv834214 CNV gain 17160897
nsv955476 CNV deletion 24416366

Variation tolerance for TSPO Gene

Gene Damage Index Score: 5.71; 73.15% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TSPO Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
TSPO
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for
TSPO

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TSPO Gene

Disorders for TSPO Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(40) MalaCards diseases for TSPO Gene - From: DISEASES, Novoseek, and GeneCards

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hepatic encephalopathy
  • portal-systemic encephalopathy
generalized anxiety disorder
  • anxiety generalized
hepatic coma
  • hepatocerebral intoxication
panic disorder
  • panic disorder 1
focal epilepsy
  • localisation-related epilepsy
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TSPO in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Additional Disease Information for TSPO

Genetic Association Database
(GAD)
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
(HuGE)
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TSPO: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TSPO Gene

Publications for TSPO Gene

  1. Cellular expression, localization and interactions of the product of the human MOST-1 gene associated with breast and prostate cancers. (PMID: 17143515) Tan JM … Chow VT (International journal of oncology 2007) 3 4 23 54
  2. Translocator protein (18kDa): new nomenclature for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor based on its structure and molecular function. (PMID: 16822554) Papadopoulos V … Gavish M (Trends in pharmacological sciences 2006) 2 3 4 54
  3. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor: characterization in human T-lymphoma Jurkat cells. (PMID: 16189298) Costa B … Martini C (Molecular pharmacology 2006) 3 4 23 54
  4. No association of two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and mood disorders in a Japanese sample. (PMID: 11304832) Kurumaji A … Toru M (American journal of medical genetics 2001) 3 4 23 54
  5. Cloning and characterization of PRAX-1. A new protein that specifically interacts with the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor. (PMID: 9915832) Galiègue S … Casellas P (The Journal of biological chemistry 1999) 3 4 23 54

Products for TSPO Gene

  • Signalway ELISA kits for TSPO
  • Signalway Proteins for TSPO

Sources for TSPO Gene