The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This enc... See more...

Aliases for TSPAN16 Gene

Aliases for TSPAN16 Gene

  • Tetraspanin 16 2 3 5
  • Transmembrane 4 Superfamily Member 16 2 3 4
  • Tetraspanin TM4-B 3 4
  • Tetraspanin-16 3 4
  • Tspan-16 3 4
  • TM4SF16 3 4
  • TM4-B 2 3
  • TM-8 2 3
  • TSPAN16 5

External Ids for TSPAN16 Gene

Previous HGNC Symbols for TSPAN16 Gene

  • TM4SF16

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TSPAN16 Gene

  • GC19P011269
  • GC19P011406
  • GC19P010986

Summaries for TSPAN16 Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TSPAN16 Gene

  • The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein might couple to signal transduction pathways and possibly modulate cellular activation and adhesion in haemopoietic and neural tissue. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GeneCards Summary for TSPAN16 Gene

TSPAN16 (Tetraspanin 16) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TSPAN16 include Hyperoxaluria, Primary, Type Ii and Migraine, Familial Hemiplegic, 1. An important paralog of this gene is TSPAN5.

No data available for CIViC Summary , UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Summary , Tocris Summary , Gene Wiki entry , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , Rfam classification and piRNA Summary for TSPAN16 Gene

Genomics for TSPAN16 Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements Pubs

Promoters and enhancers for TSPAN16 Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH19J011295 Promoter 0.5 EPDnew 250.7 +0.0 2 0.1 CTCF RAD21 TSPAN16 ENSG00000267174 HSPC102 CCDC159
GH19J011320 Promoter/Enhancer 1.3 Ensembl ENCODE 24.6 +27.2 27243 5.6 BCL11A CEBPA ZNF217 BRCA1 ZBTB7B ELF1 ZIC2 HOMEZ THAP11 CEBPB ENSG00000267174 ENSG00000267576 TSPAN16 ILF3 TIMM29 ZNF844 ZNF433 ZNF627 KRI1 SWSAP1
GH19J011450 Enhancer 1.2 Ensembl ENCODE CraniofacialAtlas dbSUPER 12.1 +155.2 155243 1.6 BCL11A EBF1 SP2 BHLHE40 IKZF1 NR2F1 JUNB POLR2A ARID3A ATF7 HSALNG0124031 lnc-SWSAP1-4 ELAVL3 EPOR TSPAN16 SWSAP1 PRKCSH CCDC159 lnc-PRKCSH-1 ODAD3
GH19J011319 Promoter/Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 12.8 +23.5 23523 1.8 CEBPB MAX KLF7 ZNF341 EBF1 KLF9 SP2 PRDM6 ZNF2 ZBTB33 ENSG00000267174 TSPAN16 SWSAP1 EPOR DOCK6 RGL3 ENSG00000267576 RF00017-2816 CCDC159
GH19J011360 Promoter/Enhancer 1 Ensembl ENCODE 11.8 +65.9 65853 1.7 MNT ETS1 ZIC2 SIN3A REST CTCF ZNF341 SMARCA4 EHMT2 NRF1 RGL3 PLPPR2 EPOR TSPAN16 HSALNG0124019 SWSAP1
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data from 2017 publication | Request up-to-date GeneHancer data (full dataset)

GeneHancers around TSPAN16 on the GeneHancer Hub at the UCSC Golden Path

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TSPAN16 gene promoter:
  • Nkx3-1
  • Nkx3-1 v1
  • Nkx3-1 v2
  • Nkx3-1 v3
  • Nkx3-1 v4
  • RORalpha2

Genomic Locations for TSPAN16 Gene

Latest Assembly
30,858 bases
Plus strand

Previous Assembly
(GRCh37/hg19 by Entrez Gene)
30,837 bases
Plus strand

(GRCh37/hg19 by Ensembl)
30,849 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TSPAN16 Gene

Genes around TSPAN16 on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TSPAN16 Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TSPAN16 Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TSPAN16 Gene

Proteins for TSPAN16 Gene

  • Protein details for TSPAN16 Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • K7EN22
    • K7EPD8
    • Q8N6J7

    Protein attributes for TSPAN16 Gene

    245 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    26266 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

    Alternative splice isoforms for TSPAN16 Gene


neXtProt entry for TSPAN16 Gene

Post-translational modifications for TSPAN16 Gene

No Post-translational modifications

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TSPAN16 Gene

Domains & Families for TSPAN16 Gene

Gene Families for TSPAN16 Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • Predicted membrane proteins

Protein Domains for TSPAN16 Gene

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TSPAN16 Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:
  • Transmembrane 4 superfamily member 16 (TSN16_HUMAN)

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the tetraspanin (TM4SF) family.
  • Belongs to the tetraspanin (TM4SF) family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TSPAN16: view

Function for TSPAN16 Gene

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TSPAN16 Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TSPAN16: view

Animal Models for research

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TSPAN16

No data available for Molecular function , Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function , Human Phenotype Ontology , Animal Models , miRNA , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TSPAN16 Gene

Localization for TSPAN16 Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TSPAN16 Gene

Membrane. Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TSPAN16 gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 4
extracellular 2
endoplasmic reticulum 2
cytosol 2
cytoskeleton 1
mitochondrion 1
nucleus 1
endosome 1
lysosome 1
golgi apparatus 1

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TSPAN16 Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane IBA 21873635
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane TAS 10500248
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TSPAN16: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TSPAN16 Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TSPAN16 Gene

PathCards logo

SuperPathways for TSPAN16 Gene

No Data Available

Interacting Proteins for TSPAN16 Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TSPAN16 Gene


No data available for Pathways by source and SIGNOR curated interactions for TSPAN16 Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TSPAN16 Gene

No Compound Related Data Available

Transcripts for TSPAN16 Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TSPAN16 Gene

6 NCBI additional mRNA sequence :
6 Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links to gene/alias where relevant :

Inhibitory RNAs for research

  • Search GeneCopoeia for shRNA, lentivirus and/or AAV clone products for TSPAN16

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TSPAN16 Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TSPAN16 Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for

Expression for TSPAN16 Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and SAGE for TSPAN16 Gene

mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery

  • Testis (Reproductive System)

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TSPAN16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (x49.3).

Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for TSPAN16 Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Testis (69.0).

Integrated Proteomics: protein expression in normal tissues and cell lines from ProteomicsDB and MOPED for TSPAN16 Gene

Protein tissue co-expression partners for TSPAN16 Gene

- Elite partner

Transcriptomic regulation report from SPP (The Signaling Pathways Project) for TSPAN16

SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TSPAN16 Gene:


mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TSPAN16 Gene:

Tissue specificity: Broadly expressed in most human tissues and cell lines including neural and bone marrow derived tissues.

Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TSPAN16 Gene

  • Nervous system(4.3)
  • Skin(2.3)
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TSPAN16: view

Primer products for research

No data available for Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TSPAN16 Gene

Orthologs for TSPAN16 Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of mammals.

Orthologs for TSPAN16 Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TSPAN16 30 31
  • 98.77 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TSPAN16 30
  • 81.15 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TSPAN16 31
  • 70 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TSPAN16 was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Eremothecium gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)
  • African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • Alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • Amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • Beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • Bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chicken (Gallus gallus)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • Common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • Corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • Filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute Bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • Fission Yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • Fruit Fly (Drosophila melanogaster)
  • Green Algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. Lactis Yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • Lizard (Anolis carolinensis)
  • Loblloly Pine (Pinus taeda)
  • Malaria Parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • Medicago Trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • Moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • Mouse (Mus musculus)
  • Oppossum (Monodelphis domestica)
  • Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • Pig (Sus scrofa)
  • Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
  • Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • Rice (Oryza sativa)
  • Rice Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • Schistosome Parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • Sea Anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • Sea Vase (Ciona intestinalis)
  • Sea Squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • Soybean (Glycine max)
  • Stem Rust Fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • Tropical Clawed Frog (Silurana tropicalis)
  • Wheat (Triticum aestivum)
  • Worm (Caenorhabditis elegans)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Evolution for TSPAN16 Gene

Gene Tree for TSPAN16 (if available)
Gene Tree for TSPAN16 (if available)
Evolutionary constrained regions (ECRs) for TSPAN16: view image

Paralogs for TSPAN16 Gene

(4) SIMAP similar genes for TSPAN16 Gene using alignment to 5 proteins:

  • K7EN22_HUMAN
  • Q8N6J7_HUMAN
genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TSPAN16: view

Variants for TSPAN16 Gene

Sequence variations, with clinical significance, from ClinVar and Humsavar, with links to dbSNP for TSPAN16 Gene

SNP ID Clinical significance and condition Chr 19 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs17001344 - p.Leu55Pro
rs318687 - p.Ser233Cys
rs34162761 - p.Tyr53Asp

dbSNP identifiers (rs#s) for variants without ClinVar clinical significance for TSPAN16 Gene

All consequence types are included: molecular consequences (e.g. missense, synonymous), and location-based (e.g. intron, upstream).

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TSPAN16 Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv2659694 CNV deletion 23128226
esv3643668 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643669 CNV loss 21293372
esv3643670 CNV loss 21293372
nsv1116300 CNV deletion 24896259
nsv519802 CNV loss 19592680
nsv578615 CNV loss 21841781
nsv833752 CNV loss 17160897

Variation tolerance for TSPAN16 Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 79.8% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 3.15; 51.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TSPAN16 Gene

SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assays for research

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TSPAN16 Gene

Disorders for TSPAN16 Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(10) MalaCards diseases for TSPAN16 Gene - From: COP

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
hyperoxaluria, primary, type ii
  • hp2
migraine, familial hemiplegic, 1
  • fhm1
familial hemiplegic migraine
  • hemiplegic migraine, familial
trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
  • thes1
migraine with aura
  • classic migraine
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards

Additional Disease Information for TSPAN16

genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TSPAN16: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and Genatlas for TSPAN16 Gene

Publications for TSPAN16 Gene

  1. The molecular characterisation of a novel tetraspanin protein, TM4-B(1). (PMID: 10500248) Puls KL … Wright MD (Biochimica et biophysica acta 1999) 2 3 4
  2. Cysteine Scanning Mutagenesis of TM4b-4c Loop of Glutamate Transporter EAAT1 Reveals Three Conformationally Sensitive Residues. (PMID: 29654220) Zhang W … Qu S (Molecular pharmacology 2018) 3
  3. Genomic study in Mexicans identifies a new locus for triglycerides and refines European lipid loci. (PMID: 23505323) Weissglas-Volkov D … Pajukanta P (Journal of medical genetics 2013) 3
  4. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. (PMID: 21873635) Gaudet P … Thomas PD (Briefings in bioinformatics 2011) 3
  5. The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. (PMID: 15057824) Grimwood J … Lucas SM (Nature 2004) 4

Products for TSPAN16 Gene

Sources for TSPAN16 Gene