Free for academic non-profit institutions. Other users need a Commercial license

Aliases for TRHR Gene

Aliases for TRHR Gene

  • Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 3 5
  • Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 3
  • Thyroliberin Receptor 3 4
  • TRH-R 3 4

External Ids for TRHR Gene

Previous GeneCards Identifiers for TRHR Gene

  • GC08P110167
  • GC08P109768
  • GC08P110056
  • GC08P110168
  • GC08P105422

Summaries for TRHR Gene

Entrez Gene Summary for TRHR Gene

  • This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Upon binding to TRH, this receptor activates the inositol phospholipid-calcium-protein kinase C transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with generalized thyrotropin-releasing hormone resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GeneCards Summary for TRHR Gene

TRHR (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with TRHR include Resistance To Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Syndrome and Acth Deficiency, Isolated. Among its related pathways are Peptide ligand-binding receptors and Signaling by GPCR. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity. An important paralog of this gene is NMUR2.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

  • Receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.

Tocris Summary for TRHR Gene

  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors are Gq/11-protein-coupled receptors that promote thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) release. Two TRH receptor subtypes, TRH1 and TRH2, have been identified in rats but only TRH1 has been found in humans.

Gene Wiki entry for TRHR Gene

Additional gene information for TRHR Gene

No data available for CIViC summary , PharmGKB "VIP" Summary , fRNAdb sequence ontologies and piRNA Summary for TRHR Gene

Genomics for TRHR Gene

GeneHancer (GH) Regulatory Elements for TRHR Gene

Promoters and enhancers for TRHR Gene
GeneHancer (GH) Identifier GH Type GH
GH Sources Gene Association Score Total Score TSS distance (kb) Number of Genes Away Size (kb) Transcription Factor
Binding Sites
Gene Targets
GH08I109065 Enhancer 0.7 ENCODE 0.3 -20.4 -20415 0.2 MEIS2 PKNOX1 TEAD4 TAL1 FOSL1 TCF12 CTBP1 ZNF316 FOXK2 NCOR1 PKHD1L1 LOC101927413 TRHR
GH08I109133 Enhancer 0.6 FANTOM5 ENCODE 0.2 +47.4 47449 0.2 POLR2A POU5F1 TRHR GC08M109231
GH08I109228 Enhancer 1.1 Ensembl ENCODE 0.1 +143.0 143040 2.3 FOXA2 MLX ARID4B ETS1 FOS REST PPARG NFIL3 MIER3 ATF4 PKHD1L1 NUDCD1 GC08M109231 TRHR
- Elite GeneHancer and/or Elite GeneHancer-gene association Download GeneHancer data dump

GeneHancers around TRHR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Top Transcription factor binding sites by QIAGEN in the TRHR gene promoter:

Genomic Locations for TRHR Gene

Genomic Locations for TRHR Gene
33,243 bases
Plus strand

Genomic View for TRHR Gene

Genes around TRHR on UCSC Golden Path with GeneCards custom track

Cytogenetic band:
TRHR Gene in genomic location: bands according to Ensembl, locations according to GeneLoc (and/or Entrez Gene and/or Ensembl if different)
Genomic Location for TRHR Gene
GeneLoc Logo Genomic Neighborhood Exon StructureGene Density

RefSeq DNA sequence for TRHR Gene

Proteins for TRHR Gene

  • Protein details for TRHR Gene (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

    Protein Symbol:
    Recommended name:
    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor
    Protein Accession:
    Secondary Accessions:
    • Q2M339

    Protein attributes for TRHR Gene

    398 amino acids
    Molecular mass:
    45085 Da
    Quaternary structure:
    No Data Available

neXtProt entry for TRHR Gene

Post-translational modifications for TRHR Gene

  • Glycosylation at posLast=33 and posLast=1010
  • Modification sites at PhosphoSitePlus

Other Protein References for TRHR Gene

ENSEMBL proteins:
REFSEQ proteins:

No data available for DME Specific Peptides for TRHR Gene

Domains & Families for TRHR Gene

Gene Families for TRHR Gene

Human Protein Atlas (HPA):
  • FDA approved drug targets
  • G-protein coupled receptors
  • Predicted membrane proteins
  • Transporters

Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for TRHR Gene

GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:

Graphical View of Domain Structure for InterPro Entry



  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
  • Belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family.
genes like me logo Genes that share domains with TRHR: view

Function for TRHR Gene

Molecular function for TRHR Gene

GENATLAS Biochemistry:
thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor,neurotransmitter and neuro regulator,involved in the thyroid hormones secretion and metabolic pathway
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function:
Receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone. This receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.

Phenotypes From GWAS Catalog for TRHR Gene

Gene Ontology (GO) - Molecular Function for TRHR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0004930 G-protein coupled receptor activity IEA --
GO:0004997 thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity TAS,IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRHR: view
genes like me logo Genes that share phenotypes with TRHR: view

Human Phenotype Ontology for TRHR Gene

HPO Id HPO Name Alternative Ids Definition Synonyms

Animal Models for TRHR Gene

MGI Knock Outs for TRHR:

Animal Model Products

  • Taconic Biosciences Mouse Models for TRHR

Clone Products

No data available for Enzyme Numbers (IUBMB) , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for TRHR Gene

Localization for TRHR Gene

Subcellular locations from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

Cell membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein.

Subcellular locations from

Extracellular space Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi Apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion 0 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence
COMPARTMENTS Subcellular localization image for TRHR gene
Compartment Confidence
plasma membrane 5

Gene Ontology (GO) - Cellular Components for TRHR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0005886 plasma membrane TAS --
GO:0005887 integral component of plasma membrane TAS 8395824
GO:0016020 membrane IEA --
GO:0016021 integral component of membrane IEA --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRHR: view

No data available for Subcellular locations from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) for TRHR Gene

Pathways & Interactions for TRHR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share pathways with TRHR: view

Gene Ontology (GO) - Biological Process for TRHR Gene

GO ID Qualified GO term Evidence PubMed IDs
GO:0007165 signal transduction IEA --
GO:0007186 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS --
genes like me logo Genes that share ontologies with TRHR: view

No data available for SIGNOR curated interactions for TRHR Gene

Drugs & Compounds for TRHR Gene

(10) Drugs for TRHR Gene - From: DrugBank, DGIdb, IUPHAR, HMDB, Tocris, and Novoseek

Name Status Disease Links Group Role Mechanism of Action Clinical Trials
calcium Approved Nutra 0
Protirelin Approved, Investigational Pharma Target, ligand 0
taltirelin Pharma Full agonist, Agonist Synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog 0
MeTRH Pharma Partial agonist, Agonist 0

(5) Additional Compounds for TRHR Gene - From: Novoseek

Name Synonyms Role CAS Number PubChem IDs PubMed IDs

(1) Tocris Compounds for TRHR Gene

Compound Action Cas Number
Taltirelin Synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog 103300-74-9
genes like me logo Genes that share compounds with TRHR: view

Transcripts for TRHR Gene

mRNA/cDNA for TRHR Gene

(2) REFSEQ mRNAs :
(6) Additional mRNA sequences :
(5) Selected AceView cDNA sequences:
(2) Ensembl transcripts including schematic representations, and UCSC links where relevant :

Unigene Clusters for TRHR Gene

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor:
Representative Sequences:

Clone Products

Alternative Splicing Database (ASD) splice patterns (SP) for TRHR Gene

No ASD Table

Relevant External Links for TRHR Gene

GeneLoc Exon Structure for
ECgene alternative splicing isoforms for

Expression for TRHR Gene

mRNA expression in normal human tissues from GTEx, Illumina, BioGPS, and CGAP SAGE for TRHR Gene

mRNA differential expression in normal tissues according to GTEx for TRHR Gene

This gene is overexpressed in Pituitary (x17.6).

NURSA nuclear receptor signaling pathways regulating expression of TRHR Gene:


SOURCE GeneReport for Unigene cluster for TRHR Gene:


Evidence on tissue expression from TISSUES for TRHR Gene

  • Nervous system(4.4)

Phenotype-based relationships between genes and organs from Gene ORGANizer for TRHR Gene

Germ Layers:
  • ectoderm
  • endoderm
  • mesoderm
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive
  • endocrine
  • integumentary
  • nervous
  • reproductive
  • respiratory
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeleton
Head and neck:
  • brain
  • ear
  • eye
  • face
  • head
  • hypothalamus
  • jaw
  • lip
  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • mouth
  • neck
  • pharynx
  • pituitary gland
  • skull
  • thyroid
  • tongue
  • heart
  • lung
  • abdominal wall
  • intestine
  • large intestine
  • liver
  • small intestine
  • rectum
  • uterus
  • blood
  • blood vessel
  • coagulation system
  • peripheral nerve
  • peripheral nervous system
  • red blood cell
  • skin
genes like me logo Genes that share expression patterns with TRHR: view

No data available for Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners and mRNA Expression by UniProt/SwissProt for TRHR Gene

Orthologs for TRHR Gene

This gene was present in the common ancestor of animals.

Orthologs for TRHR Gene

Organism Taxonomy Gene Similarity Type Details
(Pan troglodytes)
Mammalia TRHR 33 34
  • 99.5 (n)
(Canis familiaris)
Mammalia TRHR 33 34
  • 94.47 (n)
(Bos Taurus)
Mammalia TRHR 33 34
  • 92.96 (n)
(Mus musculus)
Mammalia Trhr 33 16 34
  • 90.48 (n)
(Monodelphis domestica)
Mammalia TRHR 34
  • 90 (a)
(Rattus norvegicus)
Mammalia Trhr 33
  • 89.8 (n)
(Ornithorhynchus anatinus)
Mammalia TRHR 34
  • 80 (a)
(Gallus gallus)
Aves TRHR 33 34
  • 76.19 (n)
(Anolis carolinensis)
Reptilia TRHR 34
  • 82 (a)
tropical clawed frog
(Silurana tropicalis)
Amphibia trhr 33
  • 74.17 (n)
African clawed frog
(Xenopus laevis)
Amphibia trhr-A 33
(Danio rerio)
Actinopterygii trhra 33 34
  • 66.57 (n)
trhrb 34
  • 64 (a)
African malaria mosquito
(Anopheles gambiae)
Insecta GPRNPR1 33
  • 47 (n)
fruit fly
(Drosophila melanogaster)
Insecta ETHR 34
  • 22 (a)
(Caenorhabditis elegans)
Secernentea C30F12.6 35
  • 39 (a)
npr-15 34
  • 23 (a)
npr-33 34
  • 19 (a)
Species where no ortholog for TRHR was found in the sources mined by GeneCards:
  • A. gosspyii yeast (Ashbya gossypii)
  • Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
  • Alicante grape (Vitis vinifera)
  • alpha proteobacteria (Wolbachia pipientis)
  • amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum)
  • Archea (Pyrococcus horikoshii)
  • baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
  • barley (Hordeum vulgare)
  • beta proteobacteria (Neisseria meningitidis)
  • bread mold (Neurospora crassa)
  • Chromalveolata (Phytophthora infestans)
  • common water flea (Daphnia pulex)
  • corn (Zea mays)
  • E. coli (Escherichia coli)
  • filamentous fungi (Aspergillus nidulans)
  • Firmicute bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae)
  • fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe)
  • green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii)
  • honey bee (Apis mellifera)
  • K. lactis yeast (Kluyveromyces lactis)
  • loblloly pine (Pinus taeda)
  • malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum)
  • medicago trunc (Medicago Truncatula)
  • moss (Physcomitrella patens)
  • orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)
  • pig (Sus scrofa)
  • rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
  • rice (Oryza sativa)
  • rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea)
  • schistosome parasite (Schistosoma mansoni)
  • sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis)
  • sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)
  • sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
  • sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
  • soybean (Glycine max)
  • stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis)
  • sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
  • thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)
  • tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)
  • toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
  • Trichoplax (Trichoplax adhaerens)
  • wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Evolution for TRHR Gene

Gene Tree for TRHR (if available)
Gene Tree for TRHR (if available)

Paralogs for TRHR Gene

Paralogs for TRHR Gene

genes like me logo Genes that share paralogs with TRHR: view

Variants for TRHR Gene

Sequence variations from dbSNP and Humsavar for TRHR Gene

SNP ID Clin Chr 08 pos Variation AA Info Type
rs121917847 pathogenic, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone resistance, generalized 109,087,561(+) C/T coding_sequence_variant, stop_gained
rs1000066903 -- 109,099,430(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000200716 -- 109,097,319(+) C/G intron_variant
rs1000218019 -- 109,090,386(+) G/A/T intron_variant
rs1000319063 -- 109,103,658(+) G/A intron_variant

Structural Variations from Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) for TRHR Gene

Variant ID Type Subtype PubMed ID
esv1010309 CNV insertion 20482838
esv3305632 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3305891 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3308427 CNV mobile element insertion 20981092
esv3395093 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3398027 CNV insertion 20981092
esv3404380 CNV insertion 20981092
nsv1117845 CNV deletion 24896259

Variation tolerance for TRHR Gene

Residual Variation Intolerance Score: 28.5% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)
Gene Damage Index Score: 0.79; 16.54% of all genes are more intolerant (likely to be disease-causing)

Additional Variant Information for TRHR Gene

Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD)
SNPedia medical, phenotypic, and genealogical associations of SNPs for

SNP Genotyping and Copy Number Assay Products

No data available for Polymorphic Variants from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

Disorders for TRHR Gene

MalaCards: The human disease database

(3) MalaCards diseases for TRHR Gene - From: HGMD, Orphanet, DISEASES, and Novoseek

Disorder Aliases PubMed IDs
resistance to thyrotropin-releasing hormone syndrome
  • central hypothyroidism due to trh receptor deficiency
acth deficiency, isolated
  • iad
pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting
  • prolactinoma, familial
- elite association - COSMIC cancer census association via MalaCards
Search TRHR in MalaCards View complete list of genes associated with diseases

Genatlas disease for TRHR Gene

isolated central hypothyroidism with TSH and PRL levels unresponsive to TRH (inactivating mutations of TRHR)

Additional Disease Information for TRHR

Genetic Association Database
Human Genome Epidemiology Navigator
ATLAS of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
genes like me logo Genes that share disorders with TRHR: view

No data available for UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot for TRHR Gene

Publications for TRHR Gene

  1. Genome-wide association and replication studies identified TRHR as an important gene for lean body mass. (PMID: 19268274) Liu XG … Deng HW (American journal of human genetics 2009) 3 22 44 58
  2. Sex differences in environmental and genetic factors for hypertension. (PMID: 18724972) Ruixing Y … Yuming C (The American journal of medicine 2008) 3 22 44 58
  3. Structural and functional organization of the gene encoding the human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (PMID: 9886052) Matre V … Gautvik KM (Journal of neurochemistry 1999) 3 4 22 58
  4. Genomic organization and promoter function of the human thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. (PMID: 8703031) Iwasaki T … Mori M (The Journal of biological chemistry 1996) 3 4 22 58
  5. A disulfide bonding interaction role for cysteines in the extracellular domain of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (PMID: 8770906) Cook JV … Eidne KA (Endocrinology 1996) 3 4 22 58

Products for TRHR Gene

Sources for TRHR Gene

Loading form....